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reinwardt's yoke moss, reinwardt's zygodon moss

zygodon moss

Habit Plants to 2 cm. Plants small, in tufts or loose cushions.

leaves irregularly twisted or curved, loosely spiraled around stem and ± undulate when dry, spreading to wide-spreading, sometimes subsquarrose, recurved when moist, oblong-lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, 0.7–2 mm;

margins entire to ± sharply serrulate near apex;

apex sharply acute, apiculus usually present;

costa ending near apex, abaxial surface smooth or covered by cells only at apex;

basal laminal cells short-rectangular;

distal cells 5–11 µm, papillae 3–6 per cell, walls somewhat thick.

erect to ascending, branches erect to ascending.


loosely erect, irregularly twisted or curved around stem, sometimes undulate when dry, erect-spreading to squarrose-recurved when moist, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, not rugose;

base decurrent;

margins entire, serrate or serrulate near apex;

apex acute, usually apiculate;

costa percurrent, ending near apex, or rarely excurrent;

basal laminal cells subquadrate to rectangular;

distal cells rounded-quadrate to rounded-hexagonal, 4–14 µm, smooth or densely multipapillose only over lumina, papillae 2–6 per cell, clavate;

marginal cells not differentiated from basal.


3–13 mm.

Sexual condition

synoicous or autoicous.

dioicous, autoicous, or synoicous;

perichaetial leaves little different from stem leaves.


long-exserted, elliptic-oblong to fusiform, strongly 8-ribbed entire length, not constricted below mouth;

stomata superficial;

peristome double, single, or absent;

exostome teeth 8, or 16 partially connate in 8 pairs, papillose;

endostome segments 0, 8, or 16.


cucullate, conic, smooth, naked or rarely hairy, not plicate, covering distal portion of capsule.


17–22 µm.



asexual reproduction by clavate to elliptic gemmae, longitudinal walls usually absent.

Zygodon reinwardtii


Habitat Tree trunks
Elevation low elevations
from FNA
AK; BC; Mexico; South America; West Indies; Central America (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama); Asia; Africa; Pacific Islands; Australia
North America; Mexico; Central America; South America; West Indies; Europe; Asia; Africa; Pacific Islands (New Zealand); Australia

Identifying characteristics of Zygodon reinwardtii include: leaf margins entire or ± serrulate at apex, sexual condition synoicous or autoicous, and abaxial costa smooth, not covered with papillose, quadrate cells distally. The serrulation of the distal leaf margins is highly variable, with some specimens having sharply serrulate margins (placed in var. reinwardtii), while others have entire margins or margins with one or two small teeth (placed in var. subintegrifolius). The value of taxonomically distinguishing these plants is dubious.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Species ca. 90 (5 in the flora).

Many species of Zygodon rarely produce sporophytes, and taxa are delimited on characters derived exclusively from the gametophyte. The genus is largely pantropical with several widespread temperate species. None of the species are found farther north than 60° N latitude. The leaves are keeled; the basal laminal cells are usually pale yellow; the capsules are 1–2 mm; and the spores are 11–22 µm.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

1. Distal laminal cells smooth.
Z. menziesii
1. Distal laminal cells papillose
→ 2
2. Leaves wide-spreading to squarrose-recurved when moist; apices bluntly acute, apiculus absent; distal laminal cells 4-9 µm, walls very thick; gemmae absent.
Z. gracilis
2. Leaves spreading, ± recurved or rarely subsquarrose when moist; apices sharply acute, apiculus present; distal laminal cells 5-14 µm, walls somewhat thick; gemmae present
→ 3
3. Costal abaxial surface smooth or covered by cells only at apex; sexual condition synoicous or autoicous.
Z. reinwardtii
3. Costal abaxial surface covered by cells distally; sexual condition dioicous
→ 4
4. Gemmae cylindric to fusiform, longitudinal walls absent; distal laminal cells 9-14 µm.
Z. conoideus
4. Gemmae clavate, elliptic, or subcylindric, longitudinal walls present or absent; distal laminal cells 7-11 µm.
Z. viridissimus
Source FNA vol. 28, p. 80. FNA vol. 28, p. 78.
Parent taxa Orthotrichaceae > Zygodon Orthotrichaceae
Sibling taxa
Z. conoideus, Z. gracilis, Z. menziesii, Z. viridissimus
Subordinate taxa
Z. conoideus, Z. gracilis, Z. menziesii, Z. reinwardtii, Z. viridissimus
Synonyms Syrrhopodon reinwardtii, Z. reinwardtii var. subintegrifolius
Name authority (Hornschuch) A. Braun: in P. Bruch and W. P. Schimper, Bryol. Europ. 3: 41. (1838) Hooker & Taylor: Muscol. Brit., 70, plates 3 [upper left], 21 [upper left]. (1818)
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