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long-spur violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–20 cm.

1–7, ascending to erect (often declining during anthesis), glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.


basal and cauline;

basal: 1–5;

stipules lanceolate, margins laciniate, apex acute;

petiole 1–9.6 cm, glabrous;

blade sometimes purple-spotted abaxially and/or adaxially, reniform to ovate, 1–4.5 × 1–4 cm, base broadly cordate to cordate, margins crenate to serrate, mostly eciliate, apex obtuse to acute, surfaces usually pubescent, mostly adaxially toward base, sometimes glabrous;

cauline similar to basal except: petiole 0.4–4 cm;

distal cauline blades ovate to deltate, 1–4.5 × 1–4 cm, base cordate, apex acuminate to acute.


5–9 cm, usually glabrous.


sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 1–2 mm;

petals pale lavender-violet on both surfaces, all white basally, lower 3 purple-black-veined, all beardless, lowest 8–20 mm, spur white, purple, or lavender-tinged, elongated, 10–20 mm;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers axillary.


ellipsoid, 4–6 mm, glabrous.


beige to bronze, 1.3–2 mm.


= 20.

Viola rostrata

Phenology Flowering Apr–May.
Habitat Rich, mesic to dry, well-drained woodlands, mountains
Elevation 200–1800 m [700–5900 ft]

Viola rostrata has the longest spur of any North American Viola species.

Viola rostrata reportedly hybridizes with V. labradorica (= V. ×malteana House) and V. striata (= V. ×brauniae Grover ex Cooperrider).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

from FNA
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Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Synonyms Lophion rostratum
Name authority Pursh: Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 174. (1813)
Source Flora of North America vol. 6, p. 154.
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