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Flett's violet, Olympic violet

Utah violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–20 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–4, prostrate, decumbent, or erect, leafy proximally and distally, glabrate or sparsely puberulent, on caudex from subligneous rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules adnate to petiole, forming 2 linear-lanceolate wings, margins entire or laciniate with glandular hairs, apex of each wing free, acute, sometimes divided into several filiform processes;

petiole 2–8(–12) cm, glabrate or sparsely puberulent;

blade usually broadly ovate, sometimes ± orbiculate, 1–4.5 × 0.7–3.4 cm, base usually attenuate, rarely truncate or subcordate, margins ± coarsely crenate-serrate, ciliate, apex obtuse, surfaces glabrate or sparsely puberulent;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules lanceolate or linear-lanceolate to linear, margins ± entire or lacerate to laciniate with sparse gland-tipped projections, apex acute to acuminate, often divided into 2–4 filiform processes;

petiole 3–8.7 cm;

blade ovate to oblong-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 0.7–1.6 × 2.6–3.7 cm, margins shallowly serrate, irregularly crenate, or ± entire, apex acute to obtuse.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

4–10 cm, glabrate or sparsely puberulent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate, margins ciliate or eciliate, auricles 1–1.5 mm;

petals deep lemon-yellow adaxially, upper 2 and sometimes lateral 2 reddish brown to brownish purple abaxially, lower 3 and sometimes upper 2 dark brown-veined, lateral 2 sparsely bearded, lowest 10–13 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–1.5 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

± spherical, 6–7 mm, glabrous or finely puberulent.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

brown, ca. 3 mm.

2n

= 24.

Viola flettii

Viola utahensis

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering May.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Open sagebrush areas, semidesert slopes, grasslands, open forests
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 1200–2600 m [3900–8500 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CO; ID; NV; UT; WY
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Viola utahensis occurs only in areas where its closest relatives, V. vallicola and V. purpurea var. venosa, are also found and it appears to have originated from the crossing of those taxa followed by a doubling of the chromosomes (M. S. Baker 1949). The elaiosome of V. utahensis seeds has the same general appearance as those of other members of V. purpurea complex (except V. purpurea var. venosa), covering about one-third the length of the seed. G. Davidse (1976) found that tetraploid members of Clausen’s “subsect.” Purpurea (V. utahensis) have serrate leaf margins; diploid plants (V. purpurea) have crenate leaf margins. He also found that the size of V. utahensis plants is correlated with elevation, the largest plants at low elevations and the smallest at higher elevations.

G. Davidse (1976) reported putative hybrids between Viola utahensis and V. praemorsa subsp. major (= var. linguifolia), V. purpurea var. venosa, and V. beckwithii.

Observed pollinators of Viola utahensis in Utah include the bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus and Anthophora ursina Cresson (G. Davidse 1976). In other populations, flies in the genera Eristalis Latreille and Bombylius Linnaeus were observed indiscriminately visiting the yellow-flowered species V. praemorsa subsp. major, V. utahensis, and V. vallicola (Davidse).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 162.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) M. S. Baker & J. C. Clausen: Leafl. W. Bot. 5: 145. (1949)
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