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Viola flettii

Flett's violet, Olympic violet, rock violet

3-nerve violet, desert pansy, Rainier or sagebrush or three-nerve violet, Rainier violet, sagebrush violet, three-nerve violet

cream or cream-white or pale or striped or striped cream violet, creamy violet, striped cream violet, striped white violet, violette strièe

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 10–60 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–4, decumbent, ascending, or erect, ca. 1/2 subterranean, glabrous, from single, vertical, deep-seated caudex.

1–4, ascending to erect (often declining during anthesis), glabrous or pubescent, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–7, palmately compound, leaflets 3–5;

stipules adnate to petiole, forming 2 linear-lanceolate wings, unlobed, margins entire, apex of each wing free, acute;

petiole 4.5–15 cm, glabrous;

blade reniform or ovate to ± orbiculate, 2–5 × 2.5–5 cm, coriaceous, base tapered, leaflets cleft or dissected into 2–3 elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate lobes 2–7 mm wide, margins usually entire, eciliate, apex acute, mucronulate, surfaces glabrous (± glaucous), abaxial surface usually with prominent vein parallel to each margin;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules lanceolate;

petiole 1–5.5 cm;

blade 1–3 × 2–4.5 cm.

basal and cauline;

basal: 2–6;

stipules lanceolate to narrowly deltate, margins laciniate, apex acute;

petiole 3–6 cm, glabrous or puberulent;

blade ovate to reniform, 2–7 × 1–2.5 cm, base cordate, margins crenate to serrate, ciliate or eciliate, apex obtuse to acute, surfaces glabrous or pubescent;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules lanceolate, margins laciniate;

petiole 3–7 cm;

distal blades ovate to deltate, 1–6 × 1–4 cm, base cordate, apex acuminate to acute.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

1.1–7 cm, glabrous.

5–12 cm, glabrous or pubescent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0–1 mm;

petals: upper 2 often overlapping, dark reddish violet on both surfaces, lower 3 lilac, rarely white, lateral 2 bearded, with yellow patch basally and reddish violet patch distal to yellow patch, lowest 9–15 mm with yellow patch, dark reddish violet-veined, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.6–1.5 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers absent.

sepals lanceolate, margins ciliate or eciliate, auricles 2–3 mm;

petals white or cream on both surfaces, without yellow patch basally, lowest and usually lateral 2 purple-veined, lateral 2 and sometimes all densely bearded, lowest 10–18 mm, spur white, gibbous to elongated, 3–6 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ovoid, 7–12 mm, glabrous.

ellipsoid, 6–7 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

tan, 3.2–4.5 mm.

beige to bronze, 1.5–3 mm.

2n

= 20.

Viola flettii

Viola trinervata

Viola striata

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering Mar–May. Flowering Mar–Jun.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Sagebrush flats, dry, rocky hillsides, usually in gravelly soil Riparian or alluvial woods, floodplains in silty loam, meadows
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 400–1200 m [1300–3900 ft] 40–1000 m [100–3300 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
OR; WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; AR; CT; DC; DE; GA; IA; IL; IN; KY; MA; MD; MI; MO; NC; NH; NJ; NY; OH; OK; PA; SC; TN; VA; WI; WV; ON
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

In some populations of Viola trinervata the lower three petals are white with a yellow area proximally (V. B. Baird 1942).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Dead, long-persistent stems of Viola striata are often present the following season. In flower, the plants are often mistaken for V. canadensis because the petals are whitish (H. E. Ballard 1992).

Viola striata reportedly hybridizes with V. labradorica (= V. ×eclipes H. E. Ballard), V. rostrata (= V. ×brauniae Grover ex Cooperrider), V. walteri var. appalachiensis (= V. ×wujekii H. E. Ballard), and V. walteri var. walteri (= V. ×cooperrideri H. E. Ballard).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 161. FNA vol. 6, p. 159.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Synonyms V. beckwithii var. trinervata Lophion striatum, V. conspersa var. masonii
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) (Howell) Howell ex A. Gray: Bot. Gaz. 11: 290. (1886) Aiton: Hort. Kew. 3: 290. (1789)
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