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Viola flettii

Flett's violet, Olympic violet, rock violet

great-spur or long-spur or Selkirk's violet, great-spur violet, Selkirk's violet, violette de Selkirk

halberd-leaf or halberdleaf yellow violet, halberdleaf yellow violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, acaulescent, not stoloniferous, 4–15 cm; rhizome slender, not fleshy. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–30 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1(–2), erect, leafless proximally, leafy distally, glabrous or sparsely puberulent, from fleshy rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal, 2–12, prostrate to ascending;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire, apex acute;

petiole 1.5–7 cm, not winged, glabrous or pubescent;

blade unlobed, usually ovate, rarely orbiculate, 1–5 × 1–5 cm, base cordate, margins crenate to crenulate or serrate, eciliate, apex rounded to acute, surfaces glabrous or sometimes pubescent abaxially, strigose adaxially.

basal and cauline;

basal: 0–1;

stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins laciniate with gland-tipped projections, apex usually acuminate;

petiole 3–11.5 cm, usually glabrous;

blade sometimes gray-green abaxially, usually mottled light green adaxially, widely or narrowly hastate to ovate, 2.5–4.4 × 1.8–3.2 cm, base hastate to cordate or truncate, margins serrate or crenate, ciliate or eciliate, apex acute, surfaces usually glabrous, sometimes scabrous;

cauline similar to basal except: leaves usually restricted to distal ends of naked stems;

petiole 1–2.5 cm;

blade 2–10 × 1.1–4.5 cm.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

3–6 cm, glabrous or pubescent.

1–5.3 cm, usually glabrous.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 1–2 mm;

petals light violet on both surfaces, lower 3 white basally and dark violet-veined, lateral 2 beardless, lowest 8–13 mm, spur pale to dark violet, elongated, 4–7 mm;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers on prostrate to ascending peduncles.

sepals lanceolate to ovate, margins mostly eciliate, auricles 0.5–1 mm;

petals lemon-yellow usually on both surfaces, lower 3 and sometimes upper 2 brownish purple-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 9.5–12 mm, spur yellow to greenish, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ovoid to ellipsoid, 4–8 mm, glabrous.

ovoid to ellipsoid, 6–8 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

brown, 1–2 mm.

beige to bronze, 2–2.5 mm.

2n

= 24.

= 12.

Viola flettii

Viola selkirkii

Viola hastata

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering May–Jun. Flowering late Mar–May.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Wet to moist places, thickets, mixed or coniferous woods Rich woods, chiefly mountains and piedmont
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 200–3000 m [700–9800 ft] 50–2000 m [200–6600 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AK; CO; MA; ME; MI; MN; NH; NY; PA; SD; VT; WA; WI; AB; BC; MB; NB; NL; NS; ON; QC; SK; YT; Greenland; Eurasia
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; GA; KY; MD; NC; NY; OH; PA; SC; TN; VA; WV
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Viola selkirkii occurs on the southwestern coast of Greenland, north to 63ºN (L. Brouillet, pers. comm.). Presence of V. selkirkii in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut is considered doubtful (L. Brouillet et al., http://canadensys.net/vascan). K. W. Allred (2008) said that V. selkirkii was considered by W. C. Martin and C. R. Hutchins (1980) to be expected in New Mexico.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

V. B. Baird (1942) commented that Viola hastata is more closely related to V. glabella than to any eastern species.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 157. FNA vol. 6, p. 133.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Pursh ex Goldie: Edinburgh Philos. J. 6: 324. (1822) Michaux: Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 149. (1803)
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