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Viola flettii

Flett's violet, Olympic violet, rock violet

great-spur or long-spur or Selkirk's violet, great-spur violet, Selkirk's violet, violette de Selkirk

Canada violet, Canada white violet, Canadian violet, Canadian white violet, rugose violet, western Canadian violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, acaulescent, not stoloniferous, 4–15 cm; rhizome slender, not fleshy. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–46(–60) cm, with branching rhizomes forming colonies or not.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–3(4), usually erect to ascending, glabrous or puberulent, from fleshy or subligneous rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal, 2–12, prostrate to ascending;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire, apex acute;

petiole 1.5–7 cm, not winged, glabrous or pubescent;

blade unlobed, usually ovate, rarely orbiculate, 1–5 × 1–5 cm, base cordate, margins crenate to crenulate or serrate, eciliate, apex rounded to acute, surfaces glabrous or sometimes pubescent abaxially, strigose adaxially.

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–5;

stipules ± oblong, ovate, or lanceolate, margins entire, sometimes glandular, apex acuminate to cuspidate;

petiole 1.1–23 cm, glabrous or puberulent;

blade ovate to broadly ovate or ovate-reniform, 0.7–12.4 × 0.9–11.1(–12.3) cm, base cordate, subcordate, or truncate, margins crenate, crenulate, or serrulate, ciliate (sometimes only on proximal 1/2) or eciliate, apex acute to acuminate, surfaces glabrous or puberulent (often only on veins);

cauline similar to basal except: stipules also deltate, margins also erose or laciniate, apex acute, long-acuminate to cuspidate, or ± truncate, occasionally 2- or 3-fid;

petiole 0.1–6.9(–15.2) cm;

blade ovate to deltate, 1.2–7.7 × 0.8–7.8 cm, base cordate to truncate, margins crenate or crenulate to ± serrulate.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

3–6 cm, glabrous or pubescent.

1–6.1 cm, glabrate to puberulent, sometimes glabrous below bracteoles.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 1–2 mm;

petals light violet on both surfaces, lower 3 white basally and dark violet-veined, lateral 2 beardless, lowest 8–13 mm, spur pale to dark violet, elongated, 4–7 mm;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers on prostrate to ascending peduncles.

sepals lanceolate, margins usually eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.3 mm;

petals white adaxially, upper 2 and lower 3 tinged soft reddish violet abaxially, rarely white on both surfaces, all petals usually with yellow patch basally, lower 3 usually purple-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 5.5–20 mm, spur white, gibbous, 1–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary or absent.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ovoid to ellipsoid, 4–8 mm, glabrous.

ovoid to ellipsoid, 2.5–10 mm, sometimes muriculate, glabrous or puberulent.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

brown, 1–2 mm.

brown to dark brown or purplish black, 1.5–2.5 mm.

2n

= 24.

Viola flettii

Viola selkirkii

Viola canadensis

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering May–Jun.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Wet to moist places, thickets, mixed or coniferous woods
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 200–3000 m [700–9800 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AK; CO; MA; ME; MI; MN; NH; NY; PA; SD; VT; WA; WI; AB; BC; MB; NB; NL; NS; ON; QC; SK; YT; Greenland; Eurasia
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AK; AL; AR; AZ; CO; CT; GA; IA; ID; IL; IN; KY; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MT; NC; ND; NE; NH; NJ; NM; NY; OH; OR; PA; RI; SC; SD; TN; UT; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; WY; AB; BC; MB; NB; NS; NT; ON; QC; SK; YT
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Viola selkirkii occurs on the southwestern coast of Greenland, north to 63ºN (L. Brouillet, pers. comm.). Presence of V. selkirkii in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut is considered doubtful (L. Brouillet et al., http://canadensys.net/vascan). K. W. Allred (2008) said that V. selkirkii was considered by W. C. Martin and C. R. Hutchins (1980) to be expected in New Mexico.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Varieties 3 (3 in the flora).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Rhizomes branched
V. canadensis var. rugulosa
1. Rhizomes not branched
→ 2
2. Plants 11–46 cm; basal leaf blades 2.4–9.2 cm wide.
V. canadensis var. canadensis
2. Plants 3–14(–18) cm; basal leaf blades 0.9–3.8 cm wide.
V. canadensis var. scopulorum
Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 157. FNA vol. 6, p. 125.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Subordinate taxa
V. canadensis var. canadensis, V. canadensis var. rugulosa, V. canadensis var. scopulorum
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Pursh ex Goldie: Edinburgh Philos. J. 6: 324. (1822) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 936. (1753)
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