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Flett's violet, Olympic violet

long-spur violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–20 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–7, ascending to erect (often declining during anthesis), glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–5;

stipules lanceolate, margins laciniate, apex acute;

petiole 1–9.6 cm, glabrous;

blade sometimes purple-spotted abaxially and/or adaxially, reniform to ovate, 1–4.5 × 1–4 cm, base broadly cordate to cordate, margins crenate to serrate, mostly eciliate, apex obtuse to acute, surfaces usually pubescent, mostly adaxially toward base, sometimes glabrous;

cauline similar to basal except: petiole 0.4–4 cm;

distal cauline blades ovate to deltate, 1–4.5 × 1–4 cm, base cordate, apex acuminate to acute.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

5–9 cm, usually glabrous.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 1–2 mm;

petals pale lavender-violet on both surfaces, all white basally, lower 3 purple-black-veined, all beardless, lowest 8–20 mm, spur white, purple, or lavender-tinged, elongated, 10–20 mm;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ellipsoid, 4–6 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

beige to bronze, 1.3–2 mm.

2n

= 20.

Viola flettii

Viola rostrata

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering Apr–May.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Rich, mesic to dry, well-drained woodlands, mountains
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 200–1800 m [700–5900 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; CT; GA; IN; KY; MA; MD; MI; NC; NJ; NY; OH; PA; SC; TN; VA; VT; WI; WV; ON; QC; e Asia (Japan)
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Viola rostrata has the longest spur of any North American Viola species.

Viola rostrata reportedly hybridizes with V. labradorica (= V. ×malteana House) and V. striata (= V. ×brauniae Grover ex Cooperrider).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 154.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Synonyms Lophion rostratum
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Pursh: Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 174. (1813)
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