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Flett's violet, Olympic violet

primrose-leaf violet, western bog violet, western white bog violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, acaulescent, stoloniferous, (3–)5–20(–36) cm; stolons pale, often rooting and leafy at nodes; rhizome thick or slender, fleshy.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal, 4–8, prostrate to ascending;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins ± crenate-serrate, sometimes glandular, apex acute;

petiole (1–)3–13(–29) cm, glabrous or pubescent;

blade unlobed, elliptic to narrowly or broadly ovate, (1.5–)3–7(–9) × 1–3(–3.5) cm, longer than wide, base broadly cordate to attenuate, rarely ± truncate, margins crenulate to serrulate, sometimes glandular, mostly eciliate, apex acute to rounded, mucronulate, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

(3–)6–18(–28) cm, glabrous.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate to ovate, margins usually eciliate, auricles 1–2 mm;

petals white on both surfaces, lower 3 purple-veined, lateral 2 bearded or beardless, lowest 9–14(–16) mm, spur white, gibbous, 1–2 mm;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers present or absent.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ellipsoid, (5–)8–9 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

beige to bronze, 1.5–2 mm.

2n

= 24.

Viola flettii

Viola primulifolia

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; AR; CA; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IL; IN; KY; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MS; NC; NH; NJ; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SC; TN; TX; VA; VT; WV
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

Viola primulifolia occurs in small colonies; individual plants are interconnected by stolons.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Leaf blades elliptic to widely ovate, base broadly cordate to attenuate, surfaces sparsely pubescent, rarely glabrous; cleistogamous flowers present; c, e United States.
V. primulifolia var. primulifolia
1. Leaf blades elliptic to narrowly ovate, base usually attenuate, rarely ± truncate, surfaces glabrous, rarely pubescent; cleistogamous flowers absent; nw California, sw Oregon.
V. primulifolia var. occidentalis
Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 148.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Subordinate taxa
V. primulifolia var. occidentalis, V. primulifolia var. primulifolia
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 934. (1753)
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