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Flett's violet, Olympic violet

goosefoot yellow violet, mountain yellow violet, pine violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–18 cm, cespitose or not.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–3, prostrate or erect, leafy proximally and distally, puberulent or canescent to gray-tomentose, sometimes glabrous, on caudex from subligneous rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–4;

stipules adnate to petiole forming 2 linear-lanceolate wings, margins entire or laciniate, apex of each wing free, tips usually filamentous;

petiole 2.3–9.5 cm, puberulent or canescent;

blade purple-tinted abaxially or not, usually linear to narrowly lanceolate, oblanceolate or obovate, or lanceolate-elliptic, rarely ovate, 1.3–5 × 0.3–2.5 cm, base attenuate, margins usually lacerate, dentate, or serrate, sometimes entire, usually undulate, ciliate, apex acute, mucronulate, surfaces puberulent to canescent or gray-tomentose;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules lanceolate, oblanceolate, or linear-oblong, margins entire or lacerate, apex acute to acuminate;

petiole 0.9–8.3 cm;

blade 2.8–9.6 × 0.3–1.4 cm, length 4–11 times width.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

2.9–11.5 cm, puberulent or canescent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate, margins ciliate, auricles 0.5–1 mm;

petals deep lemon-yellow adaxially, upper 2 red- to purple-brown abaxially, lower 3 dark brown-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 5–12 mm, spur color same as petals, gibbous, 1.5–3 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ovoid, 3.5–7 mm, puberulent.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

medium to dark brown, 2–3.5 mm.

2n

= 12.

Viola flettii

Viola pinetorum

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Flowers of Viola pinetorum have been observed to close up in late afternoon then fully reopen the following morning.

Although E. O. Wooton and P. C. Standley (1915) reported Viola pinetorum from New Mexico, the plant was probably V. nuttallii. K. W. Allred (2008) noted that V. pinetorum occurs in California; he did not recognize it in New Mexico.

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Plants 6.5–18 cm, not cespitose; basal leaf blades 0.7–2.5 cm wide, surfaces puberulent; peduncles 3.4–11.5 cm.
V. pinetorum var. pinetorum
1. Plants 3–7(–9) cm, usually cespitose; basal leaf blades 0.3–1 cm wide, surfaces canescent, sometimes appearing gray-tomentose; peduncles 2.9–6(–7) cm.
V. pinetorum var. grisea
Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 144.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Subordinate taxa
V. pinetorum var. grisea, V. pinetorum var. pinetorum
Synonyms V. purpurea var. pinetorum
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Greene: Pittonia 2: 14. (1889)
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