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Flett's violet, Olympic violet

bird-foot violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, acaulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–30 cm; rhizome thick, fleshy.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal, 4–10, ascending to erect, deeply divided;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire, lacerate, or shallowly divided, apex acute;

petiole 2–12 cm, glabrous or sparsely puberulent;

blade 3–9(–10)-lobed, lobes similar in width and shape, spatulate, lanceolate ± linear, deltate, or ovate, 1–4 × 1–4 cm, base attenuate or broadly cordate to cuneate, margins entire, ciliate or eciliate, apex rounded to usually acute, surfaces usually glabrous, sometimes pubescent on abaxial veins.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

5–12 cm, glabrous or pubescent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate, margins mostly ciliate, at least proximally, auricles 1–2 mm;

petals uniformly light to dark blue-violet on both surfaces or upper 2 darker adaxially, sometimes white, upper and lateral 2 often darker basally, lowest, seldom others, dark violet-veined, all beardless, lowest white basally, 12–24 mm, spur white, gibbous, 2–3 mm;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers absent.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ellipsoid, 6–10 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

beige, mottled to brown, 1.4–3 mm.

2n

= 56.

Viola flettii

Viola pedata

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; AR; CT; DC; DE; GA; IA; IL; IN; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; MI; MN; MO; MS; NC; NE; NH; NJ; NY; OH; OK; PA; RI; SC; TN; TX; VA; WI; WV; ON
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Leaf blades 7–9-lobed, lobes spatulate, lanceolate, or ± linear, sometimes with narrowly deltate to falcate appendages toward apex.
V. pedata var. pedata
1. Leaf blades 3–5(–10)-lobed, lobes deltate or ovate.
V. pedata var. ranunculifolia
Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 143.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Subordinate taxa
V. pedata var. pedata, V. pedata var. ranunculifolia
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 933. (1753)
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