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Flett's violet, Olympic violet

Nuttall's violet, yellow prairie violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 2–27 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–6, ascending to erect, leafy proximally and distally, ca. 1/2 subterranean, puberulent, on caudex from usually vertical, subligneous rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–6;

stipules adnate to petiole, forming 2 linear-lanceolate wings, margins entire, apex of each wing free, acute, few-toothed or lobed;

petiole 2–17 cm, glabrous or minutely puberulent;

blade lanceolate, ovate, or elliptic, 1–9 × 0.6–2.5 cm, base attenuate, margins entire or serrulate, sometimes sinuate, ciliate, apex acute to obtuse, mucronulate, surfaces glabrous or puberulent;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules adnate to or free from petiole, linear to linear-lanceolate or linear-oblong, sometimes leaflike, margins usually entire, rarely laciniate or glandular, apex acute to acuminate;

petiole 2–7 cm;

blade 1.4–7.2(–10) × 1.1–2.3 cm, length 1.3–4.4 times width, apex acute.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

3–13 cm, glabrous or puberulent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals linear-lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1 mm;

petals deep lemon-yellow adaxially or on both surfaces, upper 2 often brownish purple abaxially, lower 3 dark brown- to brownish purple-veined, lateral 2 sparsely bearded, lowest 6–13 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–1.5 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

subglobose to ovoid, 4–10 mm, usually glabrous, rarely finely puberulent.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

medium brown, 2–3.2 mm, elaiosome extending over 1/3 length of seed and completely covering funiculus.

2n

= 24.

Viola flettii

Viola nuttallii

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering Apr–Jun.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Sagebrush flats, prairie grasslands, dry stream banks, juniper woodlands, scree slopes
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 400–2600 m [1300–8500 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AZ; CO; ID; KS; MN; MT; ND; NE; NM; SD; UT; WY; AB; MB; SK
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

D. M. Fabijan et al. (1987) stated that Viola nuttallii showed no evidence of hybridization even when growing with V. vallicola east of the Rocky Mountains.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 140.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Synonyms Crocion nuttallii
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Pursh: Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 174. (1813)
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