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Flett's violet, Olympic violet

moose horn violet, pine violet, yellow wood violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–46 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–3, erect, leafless proximally, leafy distally, glabrous or puberulent, from subligneous rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal and cauline;

basal: 0–2, unlobed or palmately 3–11-lobed;

stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins ± entire or serrate, apex acute;

petiole 5–27 cm, glabrous or puberulent;

blade sometimes glaucous, deltate to reniform, 3.5–8.5 × 4.5–13.5 cm, base cordate, truncate, or attenuate, margins on unlobed leaves coarsely dentate-serrate, margins on lobed leaves usually entire, sometimes few-toothed, ciliate (sometimes only proximal 1/2) or eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, mucronulate, surfaces glabrous or puberulent;

cauline similar to basal except: distal on naked stems, unlobed and divided leaves can occur on same plant, if divided, palmately 3–12-lobed;

stipules sometimes large and ± leaflike, margins entire, lacerate, or laciniate, sometimes with gland-tipped projections, apex acute to acuminate;

petiole 0.2–8.8 cm;

blade reniform to reniform-cordate, ± ovate, deltate, or rhombic, 1.5–5.5 × 1.4–10 cm, base cordate, subcordate, truncate, or attenuate, margins entire, crenate-serrate, or dentate, or coarsely lacerate to deeply serrate, often entire distally, ciliate or rarely eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, often long-tapered, mucronulate.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

2–13 cm, glabrous or pubescent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate, margins ciliate or eciliate, auricles 0.1–1 mm;

petals deep lemon-yellow adaxially, usually upper 2 and sometimes lateral 2 brownish purple abaxially, lower 3 and sometimes upper 2 brownish purple-veined basally, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 8–19 mm, spur yellow to greenish, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ellipsoid-ovoid, 6–16 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

light brown, blotched or streaked with brown, shiny, 2.1–2.7 mm.

2n

= 12.

Viola flettii

Viola lobata

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CA; OR; nw Mexico
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

V. B. Baird (1942) noted that Viola lobata was more closely related to V. tripartita than to any western Viola.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Cauline leaf blades usually deeply divided, seldom unlobed, reniform, ± ovate, or deltate, if divided, palmately 3–12-lobed, lobe margins usually entire.
V. lobata var. lobata
1. Cauline leaf blades unlobed, deltate to rhombic, ovate, or reniform-cordate, margins ± serrate, crenate-serrate, or dentate to deeply serrate or coarsely lacerate, often entire distally.
V. lobata var. integrifolia
Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 137.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Subordinate taxa
V. lobata var. integrifolia, V. lobata var. lobata
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Bentham: Pl. Hartw., 298. (1849)
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