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Flett's violet, Olympic violet

bog white violet, Howell's violet, lance-leaf violet, white bog violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, acaulescent, stoloniferous, 5–30 cm; stolons pale, often rooting and leafy at nodes; rhizome slender, fleshy.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal, 2–6(–9), ascending to erect;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or irregularly lacerate (at least distally), apex acute;

petiole 2–12 cm, glabrous or pubescent;

blade unlobed, lanceolate or narrowly elliptic to nearly linear, 2.5–12 × 0.7–2.5 cm, longer than wide, base attenuate, margins serrate, mostly eciliate, apex acute, mucronulate, surfaces glabrous.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

2–17 cm, usually pubescent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals ovate to lanceolate, margins mostly eciliate, auricles 1–2 mm;

petals white on both surfaces, lowest and sometimes lateral 2 purple-veined, lateral 2 sparsely bearded or beardless, lowest 7–12 mm, spur white, gibbous, 1–2 mm;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers on prostrate to ascending peduncles.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ellipsoid, 5–8 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

beige to bronze, 1.5–2.5 mm.

2n

= 24.

Viola flettii

Viola lanceolata

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering Mar–May.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Open to semi-open wet areas, bogs, meadows, pond and lake shores, stream banks, seasonally inundated depressions
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 0–2000 m [0–6600 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; AR; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IA; IL; IN; KY; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MO; MS; NC; NE; NH; NJ; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SC; TN; TX; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; BC; NB; NF; NS; ON; PE; QC; SPM
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Viola lanceolata occurs in small colonies; individual plants are interconnected by stolons.

Viola lanceolata subsp. vittata was recognized by N. H. Russell (1955) based on its linear leaf blade shape. The range in leaf blade shape appears to have no distinct line of demarcation. Some believe that leaf shape differences and near restriction to the coastal plain support recognition at some level. Studies are necessary to resolve this issue.

J. H. Shultze (1946) reported that Viola lanceolata was introduced into Washington in the early 1900s primarily from Cape Cod and Wisconsin as a result of importation of cranberry vines. In British Columbia, it is known from Lulu Island, where it was introduced from eastern North America (G. W. Douglas et al. 1998–2002, vol. 5).

Viola lanceolata reportedly hybridizes with V. primulifolia var. primulifolia (= V. ×modesta House) and V. macloskeyi (= V. ×sublanceolata House).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 135.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Synonyms V. lanceolata subsp. vittata, V. lanceolata var. vittata, V. vittata
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 934. (1753)
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