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Flett's violet, Olympic violet

Japanese violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, acaulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–10 cm; rhizome thick, fleshy.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal, ca. 5, ascending to erect;

stipules ± oblong, 2-fid, proximal margins entire, distal ± serrate, apex acuminate;

petiole narrowly winged distally, 1–14 cm, usually glabrous;

blade unlobed, broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, 3–8 × 3–5.5 cm, base cordate, margins crenate, usually eciliate, apex acute or ± obtuse, surfaces sparsely puberulent.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

3–6 cm, glabrous or pubescent, bracteoles near middle.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals broadly lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 6–8 mm;

petals light violet or whitish violet on both surfaces, lowest 3 occasionally white basally, often dark violet-veined, lateral 2 sparsely bearded or beardless, lowest 17–20 mm, spur pale to dark violet, elongated, 5–10 mm;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers present.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ellipsoid, 8–10 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

unknown.

Gardens

and ruderal areas; 10–50 m; introduced;

Mass.;

Asia (China, Japan, Korea).

2n

= 48.Flowering Apr–Jun.

Viola flettii

Viola japonica

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering Apr–Jun.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Gardens and ruderal areas
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 10–50 m [0–200 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
MA; Asia (China, Japan, Korea) [Introduced in North America]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 134.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Langsdorff ex Gingins: in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 1: 295. (1824)
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