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Flett's violet, Olympic violet

southern woodland violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, acaulescent, not stoloniferous, 2–15 cm; rhizome thick, fleshy.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal, 2–4, prostrate or nearly so;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire, apex acute;

petiole 1–10 cm, usually glabrous;

blade unlobed, reniform to ovate, 1–6 × 1–5 cm, base cordate, margins serrate, ciliate or eciliate, apex rounded, adaxial leaf surface with silvery strigose patches.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

2–12 cm, glabrous.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate to ovate, margins ciliate or eciliate, auricles 1–2 mm;

petals light to deep reddish violet to blue-violet on both surfaces, 3 lower whitish basally, dark violet-veined, lateral 2 densely bearded, lowest 11–17 mm, spur violet, gibbous, 2–3 mm;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers on prostrate to ascending peduncles.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ellipsoid, 8–12 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

beige, mottled to bronze, 1–1.5 mm.

2n

= 54.

Viola flettii

Viola hirsutula

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering Mar–Jun.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Dry to mesic deciduous woodlands
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 100–1000 m [300–3300 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IN; KY; MD; MS; NC; NJ; NY; OH; PA; SC; TN; VA; WV
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[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Viola hirsutula exhibits little phenotypic plasticity. Although considered by N. L. Gil-Ad (1997) to be a putative hybrid, he did not identify the potential parents and chose not to recognize it. A. Cronquist in H. A. Gleason and Cronquist (1991) considered V. hirsutula a form of V. villosa. Viola hirsutula is considered one of the more distinct species throughout its range by McKinney because of the pattern of silvery strigose patches on adaxial leaf surfaces and a more prostrate growth habit than similar species. He believes V. hirsutula is one of the least variable species in the flora. Viola hirsutula appears to occur much less frequently than herbarium collections suggest. Some herbarium specimens are misidentified and represent depauperate plants, usually of V. sororia. These specimens are often hairy on the adaxial leaf surfaces but lack the silvery patches.

Viola hirsutula reportedly hybridizes with V. sororia var. sororia (= V. ×cordifolia [Nuttall] Schweinitz) and V. sagittata var. sagittata (= V. ×redacta House).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 133.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Brainerd: Rhodora 9: 98. (1907)
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