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Viola flettii

Flett's violet, Olympic violet, rock violet

Guadalupe Mountains violet, Guadalupe violet

early blue violet, wavy-leaf violet, wood violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 1–10 cm. Plants perennial, acaulescent, not stoloniferous, 10–30 cm; rhizome thick, fleshy.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–5, decumbent to erect, leafy proximally and distally, glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

cauline;

stipules lanceolate to ovate- or oblong-lanceolate or linear, margins sparingly glandular-fimbriate, apex acute;

petiole 2–6 cm, glabrous;

blade ovate to ovate-deltate or ovate-lanceolate, 1.2–2.4 × 0.7–1.3 cm, base broadly cuneate to rounded or truncate, margins entire or with 1–3 crenations on proximal 1/2, eciliate, apex acute to rounded, surfaces glabrous, sometimes with a few short hairs on veins abaxially.

basal, 2–11, ascending to erect;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire, apex acute;

petiole 5–25 cm, glabrous or pubescent;

mid-season leaf blades incised or lobed throughout, earliest leaf blades lobed (plants homophyllous), similar to mid-season blades, blade 5–9(–16)-lobed, sinuses usually narrower, shallower toward leaf base, middle and lateral blade lobes differ in width and/or shape, middle lobes narrowly deltate to narrowly elliptic, lateral lobes narrowly elliptic, lanceolate, or falcate, 1–11 × 1–12 cm, base truncate to cordate, margins entire or crenate, ciliate or eciliate, apex acute, mucronulate, surfaces usually pubescent throughout or on veins.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

3.5–6 cm, glabrous.

5–15 cm, glabrous or pubescent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals linear to linear-lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals deep lemon-yellow adaxially, upper 2 reddish brown abaxially, lateral 2 and lowest dark brown-veined basally, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 7–11 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 1–1.4 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers absent.

sepals lanceolate to ovate, margins ciliate or eciliate, auricles 1–2 mm;

petals light to dark blue-violet on both surfaces, lower 3 and upper 2 sometimes purple-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest sometimes bearded, 15–25 mm, spur color same as petals, gibbous, 2–3 mm;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers on prostrate to ascending peduncles.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ovoid, 3–4.5 mm, glabrous.

ellipsoid, 8–12 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

light brown, ± 2 mm.

beige, mottled to bronze, 1.5–2.5 mm.

2n

= 24.

= 54.

Viola flettii

Viola guadalupensis

Viola subsinuata

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering May. Flowering Apr–Jun.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Openings and narrow ledges on limestone rock faces Rich woods
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 2600 m [8500 ft] 100–3000 m [300–9800 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
TX
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CT; DC; DE; GA; IL; KY; MA; MD; MI; NC; NJ; NY; OH; PA; RI; SC; TN; VA; VT; WI; WV; ON
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Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Of conservation concern.

Viola guadalupensis is known only from the eastern rim of the Guadalupe Mountains in Culberson County. Powell and Wauer noted that it is the only yellow-flowered violet known in the Guadalupe Mountains and appears to be related to V. nuttallii and V. vallicola. K. W. Allred (2008) stated that a report of this species in New Mexico by J. T. Kartesz and C. A. Meacham (1999) requires verification. K. Haskins (pers. comm.) reported that experiments are currently being conducted to propagate plants of V. guadalupensis via cell tissue culture.

Chloroplast (trnL-F spacer) and low-copy nuclear gene (GPI) phylogenies indicate that Viola guadalupensis is an alloploid that originated through hybridization between an unidentified member of subsect. Canadenses (the paternal parent) and a member of the V. nuttallii complex

(the maternal parent), of sect. Chamaemelanium (T. Marcussen et al. 2011). Evidence reported by these authors from a fossil-calibrated relaxed clock dating analysis showed the estimated maximum age of V. guadalupensis to be (5.7–)8.6(–11.6) million years.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

L. E. McKinney (1992) described the misconceptions surrounding Viola subsinuata that many came to think of as the heterophyllous V. palmata, whereas V. subsinuata is homophyllous. As E. Brainerd (1910, 1921) pointed out, heterophylly versus homophylly is an important and steadfast character difference in acaulescent Viola species. N. L. Gil-Ad (1997) chose not to recognize V. subsinuata, suggesting that it represented a hybrid or introgressant. H. E. Ballard (2000) and A. Haines (2011) both recognized V. subsinuata as a species.

Viola subsinuata is a state historical species in Rhode Island, where it was last documented in 1941 (R. W. Enser, http://rinhs.org/wp-content/uploads/ri_rare_plants_2007.pdf).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 132. FNA vol. 6, p. 159.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Synonyms V. emarginata var. subsinuata, V. palmata var. angelliae
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) A. M. Powell & Wauer: Sida 14: 1, fig. 1. (1990) (Greene) Greene: Pittonia 4: 4. (1899)
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