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Viola flettii

Flett's violet, Olympic violet, rock violet

Guadalupe Mountains violet, Guadalupe violet

Astoria violet, Canary violet, marsh violet, upland yellow violet, yellow montane violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 1–10 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 5.5–36.5 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–5, decumbent to erect, leafy proximally and distally, glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–3(–5), prostrate, decumbent, or erect, leafy proximally and distally, glabrous or puberulent, on caudex from usually vertical, subligneous rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

cauline;

stipules lanceolate to ovate- or oblong-lanceolate or linear, margins sparingly glandular-fimbriate, apex acute;

petiole 2–6 cm, glabrous;

blade ovate to ovate-deltate or ovate-lanceolate, 1.2–2.4 × 0.7–1.3 cm, base broadly cuneate to rounded or truncate, margins entire or with 1–3 crenations on proximal 1/2, eciliate, apex acute to rounded, surfaces glabrous, sometimes with a few short hairs on veins abaxially.

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–5;

stipules adnate to proximal 1/3 of petiole, forming 2 narrow, linear-lanceolate wings, margins entire, apex of each wing free, acute;

petiole 2.6–19.2 cm, glabrous or densely puberulent;

blade usually elliptic to ovate, sometimes oblong-lanceolate to ± orbiculate, 1.7–14(–17) × 0.8–5.3(–6.7) cm, base attenuate to ± truncate or subcordate, often oblique, margins usually crenate, serrulate, or serrate, sometimes entire, ciliate or eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or densely puberulent;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules lanceolate to ovate, margins entire or toothed, with or without gland-tipped projections, apex acute to acuminate;

petiole 1.3–16.2 cm, glabrous or puberulent;

blade 2.3–11(–14.8) × 1.1–3.6(–5.5) cm, length 1.1–6.5 times width.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

3.5–6 cm, glabrous.

4.4–27 cm, glabrous or puberulent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals linear to linear-lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals deep lemon-yellow adaxially, upper 2 reddish brown abaxially, lateral 2 and lowest dark brown-veined basally, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 7–11 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 1–1.4 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers absent.

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 1–2 mm;

petals deep lemon-yellow adaxially, upper 2, and sometimes lateral 2, brownish purple abaxially, lower 3 brownish purple-veined, lateral 2 sparsely bearded, lowest 11–19 mm, spur yellow or pale green, gibbous, 0.5–3 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ovoid, 3–4.5 mm, glabrous.

ellipsoid to oblong, 6–14 mm, glabrous or finely puberulent.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

light brown, ± 2 mm.

medium to dark brown or red-brown, 2–3 mm, elaiosome completely covering funiculus.

2n

= 24.

= 36, 48.

Viola flettii

Viola guadalupensis

Viola praemorsa

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering May.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Openings and narrow ledges on limestone rock faces
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 2600 m [8500 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
TX
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CA; CO; ID; MT; NV; OR; UT; WA; WY; AB; BC
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Of conservation concern.

Viola guadalupensis is known only from the eastern rim of the Guadalupe Mountains in Culberson County. Powell and Wauer noted that it is the only yellow-flowered violet known in the Guadalupe Mountains and appears to be related to V. nuttallii and V. vallicola. K. W. Allred (2008) stated that a report of this species in New Mexico by J. T. Kartesz and C. A. Meacham (1999) requires verification. K. Haskins (pers. comm.) reported that experiments are currently being conducted to propagate plants of V. guadalupensis via cell tissue culture.

Chloroplast (trnL-F spacer) and low-copy nuclear gene (GPI) phylogenies indicate that Viola guadalupensis is an alloploid that originated through hybridization between an unidentified member of subsect. Canadenses (the paternal parent) and a member of the V. nuttallii complex

(the maternal parent), of sect. Chamaemelanium (T. Marcussen et al. 2011). Evidence reported by these authors from a fossil-calibrated relaxed clock dating analysis showed the estimated maximum age of V. guadalupensis to be (5.7–)8.6(–11.6) million years.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Varieties 3 (3 in the flora).

Viola praemorsa is a complex group that appears to be evolving. Sympatric populations and the similarity of their flowers provide opportunities for hybridization and introgression (D. M. Fabijan et al. 1987). Some botanists have suggested that all taxa in the V. nuttallii complex, which includes V. bakeri, V. nuttallii, V. praemorsa, V. tomentosa, and V. vallicola, should be treated as varieties of V. nuttallii, as C. L. Hitchcock et al. (1955–1969, vol. 3) did, on the basis that these taxa are more or less sympatric in range, intergrade with one another, and possess no distinctive gross morphological features by which they can be consistently recognized. S. L. Welsh et al. (1987) treated V. praemorsa and V. linguaefolia Nuttall as synonymous with V. nuttallii, stating that V. nuttallii (and related taxa) are acaulescent to short-caulescent. Although some plants have short internodes, all plants in the V. nuttallii complex are caulescent. We acknowledge the complexity and taxonomic difficulties inherent in the V. nuttallii complex; patterns of morphology, cytology, and leaf flavonoid chemistry provide a basis for recognizing infrataxa. Fabijan et al. conducted the most extensive study of the complex to date; their treatment of V. praemorsa is followed here.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Basal and cauline leaf blade bases ± truncate to subcordate; basal leaf blades 1.7–5.9(–7.3) cm, length 1.1–3 times width; plants 5.5–21.5 cm.
V. praemorsa var. praemorsa
1. Basal and cauline leaf blade bases attenuate; basal leaf blades 2.7–17 cm, length 1.7–6.5 times width; plants 10.5–36.5 cm
→ 2
2. Basal leaf blades (3.4–)5.3–17 cm, usually ovate to elliptic, sometimes oblong-lanceolate, length 1.8–6.5 times width; peduncles 5.9–27 cm.
V. praemorsa var. flavovirens
2. Basal leaf blades 2.7–8.5 cm, usually ovate to elliptic, sometimes oblong-lanceolate, length 1.7–3.4 times width; peduncles 5–15 cm.
V. praemorsa var. linguifolia
Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 132. FNA vol. 6, p. 145.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Subordinate taxa
V. praemorsa var. flavovirens, V. praemorsa var. linguifolia, V. praemorsa var. praemorsa
Synonyms V. nuttallii subsp. praemorsa, V. nuttallii var. praemorsa
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) A. M. Powell & Wauer: Sida 14: 1, fig. 1. (1990) Douglas ex Lindley: Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 15: plate 1254. (1829)
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