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Viola flettii

Flett's violet, Olympic violet, rock violet

Guadalupe Mountains violet, Guadalupe violet

Alaska violet, Aleutian violet, Langsdorf's violet, Langsdorff's violet, violette de Langsdorff

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 1–10 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 2–30 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–5, decumbent to erect, leafy proximally and distally, glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–3, ascending to erect, usually glabrous, from shallow, fleshy rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

cauline;

stipules lanceolate to ovate- or oblong-lanceolate or linear, margins sparingly glandular-fimbriate, apex acute;

petiole 2–6 cm, glabrous;

blade ovate to ovate-deltate or ovate-lanceolate, 1.2–2.4 × 0.7–1.3 cm, base broadly cuneate to rounded or truncate, margins entire or with 1–3 crenations on proximal 1/2, eciliate, apex acute to rounded, surfaces glabrous, sometimes with a few short hairs on veins abaxially.

basal and cauline;

basal: 2–3;

stipules broadly ovate to deltate or long-lanceolate, margins often glandular (glands sessile or stalked), apex acute;

petiole 0.8–21 cm, glabrous or sparsely pubescent;

blade ovate to reniform, 0.9–5.8 × 1–6 cm, base cordate to ± truncate, margins crenate to crenate-serrulate, usually eciliate, apex rounded or acute to usually obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent on adaxial veins, seldom on abaxial veins;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules broadly ovate to lanceolate-oblong or deltate, apex acute to acuminate;

petiole 2.2–12.1 cm;

blade 1.9–4.2 × 1.8–5.9 cm.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

3.5–6 cm, glabrous.

2.2–20.7 cm, glabrous or sparsely pubescent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals linear to linear-lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals deep lemon-yellow adaxially, upper 2 reddish brown abaxially, lateral 2 and lowest dark brown-veined basally, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 7–11 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 1–1.4 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers absent.

sepals lanceolate to ovate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals light to deep violet on both surfaces, lower 3 white basally and light to deep violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 12–24 mm, spur white to violet, gibbous to elongated, 2–5 mm, usually less than 1/2 lowest petal, tip straight;

style head usually beardless, sometimes bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ovoid, 3–4.5 mm, glabrous.

ovoid to oblong, 7.5–13 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

light brown, ± 2 mm.

dark olive to ± black, 2.5–2.8 mm.

2n

= 24.

= 12.

Viola flettii

Viola guadalupensis

Viola langsdorffii

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering May. Flowering Apr–Aug.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Openings and narrow ledges on limestone rock faces Swamps, bogs, fens, wet meadows, stream banks, rocky slopes, usually near coast
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 2600 m [8500 ft] 0–1500 m [0–4900 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
TX
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AK; CA; OR; WA; BC; YT; Asia
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Of conservation concern.

Viola guadalupensis is known only from the eastern rim of the Guadalupe Mountains in Culberson County. Powell and Wauer noted that it is the only yellow-flowered violet known in the Guadalupe Mountains and appears to be related to V. nuttallii and V. vallicola. K. W. Allred (2008) stated that a report of this species in New Mexico by J. T. Kartesz and C. A. Meacham (1999) requires verification. K. Haskins (pers. comm.) reported that experiments are currently being conducted to propagate plants of V. guadalupensis via cell tissue culture.

Chloroplast (trnL-F spacer) and low-copy nuclear gene (GPI) phylogenies indicate that Viola guadalupensis is an alloploid that originated through hybridization between an unidentified member of subsect. Canadenses (the paternal parent) and a member of the V. nuttallii complex

(the maternal parent), of sect. Chamaemelanium (T. Marcussen et al. 2011). Evidence reported by these authors from a fossil-calibrated relaxed clock dating analysis showed the estimated maximum age of V. guadalupensis to be (5.7–)8.6(–11.6) million years.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Viola simulata and V. superba are closely related to V. langsdorffii (L. Abrams and R. S. Ferris 1923–1960, vol. 3). They were treated by C. L. Hitchcock et al. (1955–1969, vol. 3) as synonymous with V. langsdorffii pending further study.

E. Brainerd (1921) stated that Viola langsdorffii presents an interesting transition between the caulescent and acaulescent violets. Plants of the species are reported from Winchester Grade in Idaho (Gail s.n., 1931, ID); verification is needed. Viola langsdorffii is reported to have fleshy rhizomes. Plants in Del Norte County, California, have fleshy rhizomes near the soil surface, but these are connected to deeper, subligneous rhizomes.

The style in some populations of Viola langsdorffii is reported to be sometimes bearded (G. W. Douglas et al. 1998–2002, vol. 5; W. J. Cody 2000). Illustrations in V. B. Baird (1942; location of plant unknown) and M. S. Baker (1936; a plant from Alaska) show a beardless style; L. Abrams and R. S. Ferris (1923–1960, vol. 3) and C. L. Hitchcock et al. (1955–1969, vol. 3) reported that the style head was beardless. Styles are beardless in plants occurring in Del Norte County, California.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 132. FNA vol. 6, p. 136.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Synonyms V. simulata, V. superba
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) A. M. Powell & Wauer: Sida 14: 1, fig. 1. (1990) Fischer ex Gingins: in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 1: 296. (1824)
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