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Viola flettii

Flett's violet, Olympic violet, rock violet

Guadalupe Mountains violet, Guadalupe violet

alpine violet, American dog or Labrador or alpine violet, American dog violet, dog violet, Labrador violet, violette du Labrador

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 1–10 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–20 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–5, decumbent to erect, leafy proximally and distally, glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–5, erect (later reclining), glabrous, on caudex from subligneous rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

cauline;

stipules lanceolate to ovate- or oblong-lanceolate or linear, margins sparingly glandular-fimbriate, apex acute;

petiole 2–6 cm, glabrous;

blade ovate to ovate-deltate or ovate-lanceolate, 1.2–2.4 × 0.7–1.3 cm, base broadly cuneate to rounded or truncate, margins entire or with 1–3 crenations on proximal 1/2, eciliate, apex acute to rounded, surfaces glabrous, sometimes with a few short hairs on veins abaxially.

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–5;

stipules mostly lanceolate-linear, margins usually laciniate with gland-tipped projections, apex acute;

petiole 1–9.5 cm, glabrous or puberulent;

blade reniform or ovate to deltate, 1.4–5.5 × 1.8–5.3 cm, base cordate, not decurrent on petiole, margins crenate or serrate, mostly eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces usually glabrous, sometimes pubescent adaxially near margin;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules lanceolate to ovate, margins ± entire or laciniate, projections often gland-tipped, apex acuminate;

petiole 0.5–3.6 cm, glabrous;

blade narrowly ovate to orbiculate, 1.8–2.9 × 1.5–3.1 cm, base deeply cordate to truncate, margins regularly crenate, apex obtuse to broadly rounded or apiculate.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

3.5–6 cm, glabrous.

5–9 cm, glabrous or pubescent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals linear to linear-lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals deep lemon-yellow adaxially, upper 2 reddish brown abaxially, lateral 2 and lowest dark brown-veined basally, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 7–11 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 1–1.4 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers absent.

sepals lanceolate, margins ciliate or eciliate, auricles not enlarged in fruit, 1–1.5 mm;

petals usually lavender-violet to violet on both surfaces, rarely white, lower 3 white basally, darker violet-veined, lateral 2 sparsely bearded, lowest 9–16 mm, spur white to pinkish violet, elongated, 4–8 mm, tip usually straight, sometimes curved up;

style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers unknown.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

ovoid, 3–4.5 mm, glabrous.

ovoid to ellipsoid, 5–7 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

light brown, ± 2 mm.

beige to bronze, 1.5–2 mm.

2n

= 24.

= 20.

Viola flettii

Viola guadalupensis

Viola labradorica

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering May. Flowering Apr–Aug.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Openings and narrow ledges on limestone rock faces Rich, mesic to wet woods, swamps, bogs
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 2600 m [8500 ft] 50–3000 m [200–9800 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
TX
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; CO; CT; DC; DE; GA; IL; IN; KY; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; NC; ND; NH; NJ; NY; OH; PA; RI; SC; TN; VA; VT; WI; WV; MB; NB; NL; NS; NT; ON; PE; QC; SK; SPM; Greenland
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Of conservation concern.

Viola guadalupensis is known only from the eastern rim of the Guadalupe Mountains in Culberson County. Powell and Wauer noted that it is the only yellow-flowered violet known in the Guadalupe Mountains and appears to be related to V. nuttallii and V. vallicola. K. W. Allred (2008) stated that a report of this species in New Mexico by J. T. Kartesz and C. A. Meacham (1999) requires verification. K. Haskins (pers. comm.) reported that experiments are currently being conducted to propagate plants of V. guadalupensis via cell tissue culture.

Chloroplast (trnL-F spacer) and low-copy nuclear gene (GPI) phylogenies indicate that Viola guadalupensis is an alloploid that originated through hybridization between an unidentified member of subsect. Canadenses (the paternal parent) and a member of the V. nuttallii complex

(the maternal parent), of sect. Chamaemelanium (T. Marcussen et al. 2011). Evidence reported by these authors from a fossil-calibrated relaxed clock dating analysis showed the estimated maximum age of V. guadalupensis to be (5.7–)8.6(–11.6) million years.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

H. E. Ballard (1994) made a compelling case for including Viola conspersa within V. labradorica, which is followed here. Ballard (1992) did not recognize V. labradorica as occurring in Colorado. Several western herbaria have collections identified as V. labradorica (ASC, CS, KHD, RM, RMBL; http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/index.pho). Labels on some collections at KHD imply that V. labradorica is considered synonymous with V. adunca var. bellidifolia.

Viola labradorica reportedly hybridizes with V. adunca, V. rostrata (= V. ×malteana House), and V. striata (= V. ×eclipes H. E. Ballard), and less frequently with V. walteri var. appalachiensis and var. walteri.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 132. FNA vol. 6, p. 135.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Synonyms V. adunca var. minor, V. canina var. muhlenbergii, V. conspersa, V. leucopetala, V. muhlenbergiana, V. muhlenbergiana var. minor, V. muhlenbergii
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) A. M. Powell & Wauer: Sida 14: 1, fig. 1. (1990) Schrank: Denkschr. Kõnigl.-Baier. Bot. Ges. Regensburg 1(2): 12. (1818)
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