The green links below add additional plants to the comparison table. Blue links lead to other Web sites.
enable glossary links

Flett's violet, Olympic violet

cultivated pansy, European field violet, European field-pansy, field pansy, field violet, small wild pansy, wild pansy

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants annual, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–35 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–5, usually erect, sometimes prostrate or decumbent, branched, subglabrous or puberulent, clustered on taproot.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

cauline;

stipules palmately lobed, middle lobe oblanceolate, obovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, ± equaling leaf blade, proximal lobes dissected, shorter, margins ciliate, apex acute to obtuse;

petiole 0.5–2.3 cm, glabrous or puberulent;

blade: proximal ovate to ± oblong, distal narrowly or broadly lanceolate, 0.8–3.4 × 0.3–1.9 cm, base attenuate to ± truncate, margins coarsely crenate-serrate, ciliate or eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces pubescent abaxially, at least on major veins, glabrous adaxially.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

2–8 cm, glabrous or pubescent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate, margins ciliate or eciliate, auricles 2–4 mm;

petals white to pale yellow on both surfaces, upper 2 ± violet, lower 3 with yellow basal area, often violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, ± equaling or shorter than sepals, lowest with dark yellow area basally, 7–15 mm, spur blue-violet to purple, elongated, 3–5 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers absent.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

brown, 1.5–1.9 mm.

2n

= 34.

Viola flettii

Viola arvensis

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering May–Jul.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Abandoned fields, roadsides, lawns
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 0–3000 m [0–9800 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CA; CT; DC; DE; GA; ID; IL; IN; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MO; MS; MT; NC; NE; NH; NJ; NY; OH; OR; PA; RI; SC; TN; UT; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; AB; BC; MB; NB; NL; NS; ON; PE; QC; SK; SPM; Asia (Siberia); Greenland; Europe; Africa [Introduced in North America]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

A. R. Clapham et al. (1987) noted that Viola arvensis is pollinated by insects and is often selfed; T. Marcussen and T. Karlsson (2010) stated that V. arvensis regularly self-pollinates. Roots of V. arvensis have the odor of wintergreen when crushed (A. E. Radford et al. 1968; W. J. Hayden and J. Clough 1990). Viola arvensis is not vegetatively distinguishable from V. tricolor var. tricolor.

G. Halliday (pers. comm.) reported that Viola arvensis occurs in southwestern Greenland, where it is introduced, and is ephemeral on St. Pierre and Miquelon.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 121.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Synonyms Mnemion arvense, V. tricolor var. arvensis
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Murray: Prodr. Stirp. Gott., 73. (1770)
Web links