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Viola flettii

Flett's violet, Olympic violet, rock violet

Cascades early blue violet, common periwinkle, early blue violet, hook-spur violet, hookedspur violet, large periwinkle, sand violet, western dog violet, wild dog violet

Baker's violet, yellow prairie violet

Habit Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–15 cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 1.8–30(–35) cm. Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–30 cm.
Stems

1–3, ascending to erect, mostly glabrous, on caudex from fleshy rhizome.

1–5, erect, ascending, or decumbent, sometimes later reclining to nearly prostrate, glabrous or puberulent, on caudex from subligneous rhizome.

1–4, usually erect, sometimes prostrate or decumbent, leafy proximally and distally, usually puberulent, from usually vertical, subligneous rhizome.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–3;

stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with glandular processes, apex acuminate;

petiole 1.5–9.7 cm, mostly glabrous;

blade purple-tinted and –veined, broadly reniform to ovate, 0.9–2.4 × 1.2–4 cm, base cordate, margins finely crenate-serrate, eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent along veins adaxially;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or shallowly laciniate;

petiole 0.7–5.9 cm, usually glabrous;

blade 0.8–2.1 × 1.2–3.1 cm.

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–4;

stipules linear to linear-lanceolate, margins entire or laciniate with gland-tipped projections, apex acute to acuminate;

petiole 0.5–13.5 cm, glabrous or puberulent;

blade usually ovate or ovate-deltate to ovate-orbiculate, sometimes ± reniform or oblong, 0.5–6.9 × 0.4–5 cm, base cordate, subcordate, truncate, or attenuate, usually decurrent on petiole, margins crenate to crenulate or entire, ciliate or eciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely to densely puberulent;

cauline similar to basal except: stipule margins lacerate to laciniate;

petiole 0.5–6.5 cm;

blade 0.6–5.5 × 0.4–4.7 cm.

basal and cauline;

basal: 1–4;

stipules adnate to petiole, forming 2 linear-lanceolate wings, margins entire, apex of each wing free, acute to acuminate;

petiole 1–15.4 cm, glabrous or puberulent;

blade lanceolate, oblanceolate, or elliptic, rarely ovate, 1.8–8.8 × 0.7–3.9 cm, thin, base attenuate, often oblique, margins usually entire, sometimes with a few sharp teeth or crenulate, ciliate, apex acute to obtuse, mucronulate, surfaces glabrous or puberulent on margins or veins;

cauline similar to basal except: stipules ovate to lanceolate, margins entire or lacerate, sometimes with glandular projections, apex with 2–3 projections;

petiole 1.5–7.5 cm;

blade 1.9–6.7 × 0.5–1.6 cm.

Peduncles

1.8–7.1 cm, usually glabrous.

1.7–13.8 cm, glabrous or puberulent.

1.5–11.6 cm, glabrous or pubescent.

Flowers

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.5 mm;

petals soft reddish violet on both surfaces, all with yellow area basally, lower 3 dark violet-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest with white around yellow area, 10–15 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 0.5–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate, margins ciliate or eciliate, auricles not enlarged in fruit, 0.5–2 mm;

petals light- to deep- to lavender-violet on both surfaces, rarely white, lower 3 usually white basally, dark violet-veined, lateral 2 (and sometimes upper 2) bearded, lowest 7–17(–23) mm, spur purple to violet or white, elongated, 5–7 mm, tip straight or pointed, curved up or lateral;

style head sparsely to densely bearded, sometimes beardless; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

sepals lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 0.5–1 mm;

petals deep lemon-yellow adaxially, upper 2 often brownish purple abaxially, lower 3 dark brown- to brownish purple-veined, lateral 2 sparsely bearded, lowest 6–14 mm, spur yellow, gibbous, 1–2 mm;

style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary.

Capsules

± spherical, 5–9 mm, glabrous.

short-ovoid, 6–11 mm, glabrous.

spherical to ovoid, 5–10 mm, usually glabrous, rarely finely puberulent.

Seeds

dark brown to brownish purple, 2.5–3 mm.

dark brown to olive-black, 1.5–2 mm.

light to medium brown or dark red-brown, 2.6–3.1 mm, elaiosome not covering funiculus.

2n

= 48.

Viola flettii

Viola adunca

Viola bakeri

Phenology Flowering Jun–Aug. Flowering May–Jul.
Habitat Alpine and subalpine rock crevices, vertical faces, talus slopes Wet and dry places in openings of coniferous forests
Elevation 1100–2000 m [3600–6600 ft] 900–3800 m [3000–12500 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AK; AZ; CA; CO; IA; ID; MA; ME; MI; MN; MT; ND; NE; NH; NM; NV; NY; OR; SD; UT; VT; WA; WI; WY; AB; BC; MB; NB; NS; NT; NU; ON; QC; SK; YT
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CA; NV; OR; WA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Viola flettii is endemic to the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. C. S. McCreary (2005) noted that although morphologically and ecologically distinct, V. cuneata, V. flettii, and V. ocellata are closely related.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

Viola adunca is polymorphic with over 50 named taxa. G. D. McPherson and J. G. Packer (1974) reported that diploid, triploid, and tetraploid races of V. adunca occur in Canada and northwestern United States. They found that diploid and tetraploid chromosome races can be distinguished morphologically based on style beards and on the size of guard cells and pollen grains and recommended taxonomic recognition of both races. In diploid races, the style projections are more or less cylindrical and about one-sixth the width of the style; in tetraploid races they are short-conical or globular, and about one-tenth or less than the width of the style beard.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

M. S. Baker (1957) wrote that Viola bakeri flowers were often without a brownish tinge on the back. Subsequent collections have shown that the upper two petals of V. bakeri are often brownish purple abaxially and thus this characteristic cannot be used to distinguish V. bakeri from V. praemorsa, as previously done (P. A. Munz 1959; C. L. Hitchcock et al. 1955–1969, vol. 3).

Greene wrote in his description of Viola bakeri that the whole plant was glabrous; he did not mention leaf margins. M. S. Baker (1957) examined the type specimen at UC and apparently was the first to document that its leaf margins are entire. He also noted that under magnification the leaves are ciliate and more or less puberulent. D. M. Fabijan et al. (1987) stated that margins were always entire and ciliate and more or less pubescent throughout. Some collections of V. bakeri

from California have leaves with a sharp point or two on the margin, or crenulations on some portion of the basal or cauline blade margins.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Plants (4–)4.5–30(–35) cm; basal blades 1.3–6.9 × 1.2–5 cm; peduncles 3–13.8 cm; 0–3600 m; widespread in North America.
V. adunca var. adunca
1. Plants 1.8–4.5(–6.5) cm; basal blades 0.5–1.7 × 0.4–1.4 cm; peduncles 1.7–5 cm; 2500–3800 m; restricted to Rocky Mountains (Colorado, Montana, Wyoming, British Columbia).
V. adunca var. bellidifolia
Source FNA vol. 6, p. 131. FNA vol. 6, p. 119. FNA vol. 6, p. 121.
Parent taxa Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola Violaceae > Viola
Sibling taxa
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. bakeri, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
V. adunca, V. affinis, V. arvensis, V. beckwithii, V. bicolor, V. biflora, V. blanda, V. brittoniana, V. canadensis, V. canina, V. charlestonensis, V. clauseniana, V. cucullata, V. cuneata, V. douglasii, V. egglestonii, V. epipsila, V. flettii, V. frank-smithii, V. glabella, V. guadalupensis, V. hallii, V. hastata, V. hirsutula, V. howellii, V. japonica, V. labradorica, V. lanceolata, V. langsdorffii, V. lithion, V. lobata, V. macloskeyi, V. missouriensis, V. nephrophylla, V. novae-angliae, V. nuttallii, V. ocellata, V. odorata, V. orbiculata, V. palmata, V. palustris, V. pedata, V. pedatifida, V. pedunculata, V. pinetorum, V. praemorsa, V. primulifolia, V. prionantha, V. pubescens, V. purpurea, V. quercetorum, V. renifolia, V. riviniana, V. rostrata, V. rotundifolia, V. sagittata, V. selkirkii, V. sempervirens, V. septemloba, V. sheltonii, V. sororia, V. striata, V. subsinuata, V. tomentosa, V. tricolor, V. trinervata, V. tripartita, V. umbraticola, V. utahensis, V. vallicola, V. villosa, V. walteri
Subordinate taxa
V. adunca var. adunca, V. adunca var. bellidifolia
Synonyms Lophion aduncum, V. canina var. adunca V. bakeri subsp. shastensis, V. nuttallii var. bakeri
Name authority Piper: Erythea 6: 69. (1898) Smith: in A. Rees, Cycl. 37: Viola no. 63 Greene: Pittonia 3: 307. (1898)
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