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neckweed, purslane speedwell

blue speedwell, blue water speedwell, brook pimpernel, water pimpernel, water speedwell

Habit Annuals. Annuals or perennials.
Stems

erect or ascending, (2.5–)4–25(–35) cm, glabrous or densely glandular-hairy.

erect or prostrate basally, (20–)30–100(–170) cm, usually thick-fleshy, glabrous.

Leaves

blade oblanceolate proximally, narrowly oblong distally, 5–28(–35) × 2–6(–10) mm, 3–10 times as long as wide, base cuneate, margins entire or dentate distally, apex acute, surfaces glabrous or densely glandular-hairy.

petiole 0–2(–8) mm (basal lateral branches usually distinctly petiolate to 8 mm) proximally, 0 mm distally;

blade (of proximal leaves) ovate, elliptic, or oblong, (15–)30–80(–145) × (7–)10–30(–45) mm, 1.5–3 times as long as wide, base obtuse proximally to cordate-amplexicaul in middle and ± cuneate distally, margins ± serrulate or denticulate, apex acute, surfaces glabrous, rarely glandular-hairy.

Racemes

1, terminal, sometimes 1 or 2 axillary, 20–200 mm, (2–)5–40-flowered, axis glabrous or densely glandular-hairy;

bracts spatulate to linear-lanceolate, 3–22 mm.

6–25, axillary, 50–100(–150) mm, 5–10 mm diam., (20–)30–40(–60)-flowered, axis glabrous, rarely glandular-hairy;

bracts linear to lanceolate, 2–5 mm, apex acute.

Pedicels

erect, 0.2–1(–2) mm, much shorter than subtending bract, glabrous or densely glandular-hairy.

suberect or arcuate-erect to subpatent, curved upwards in fruit, 3–7(–10) mm, longer than subtending bracts, glabrous or hairy.

Flowers

calyx lobes (2–)3–6 mm, 0.9–2 mm wide, apex obtuse to acute, glabrous or densely glandular-hairy;

corolla white or pale pink, 2–5 mm diam.;

stamens 1 mm;

style 0.1–0.5 mm.

calyx lobes 2–3 mm, apex acute, glabrous, rarely hairy;

corolla lavender to pale blue, rarely pale lilac, (4–)6–8 mm diam.;

stamens 3–3.5 mm;

style 1.5–2.5 mm.

Capsules

strongly compressed in cross section, obcordiform, 2.5–5 × 2.5–6 mm, apex ± emarginate, glabrous.

slightly compressed in cross section, globular, (2.5–)3–3.5(–4) × 2.5–3.2(–4) mm, apex rounded or ± emarginate, glabrous or sparsely short glandular-hairy.

Seeds

12–140, yellow or pale brown, oblong, flat, 0.6–1.6 × 0.4–0.9 mm, 0.1–0.2 mm thick, smooth.

40–77, yellow-brown, ellipsoid to subglobular, planoconvex, (0.3–)0.5–0.7 × 0.3–0.5 mm, 0.2–0.3 mm thick, smooth.

2n

= 52.

= 36.

Veronica peregrina

Veronica anagallis-aquatica

Phenology Flowering (Feb–)Mar–Jun(–Nov). Flowering Mar–Sep(–Nov).
Habitat Moist waste lands, gardens, roadsides, stream banks, pond shorelines, vernal pools, other cultivated land. Stream margins, ditches, banks, springs, swamps, wet meadows.
Elevation 0–700(–3000) m. [0–2300(–9800) ft.] 0–4000 m. [0–13100 ft.]
Distribution
from FNA
AK; AL; AR; AZ; CA; CO; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IA; ID; IL; IN; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MO; MS; MT; NC; ND; NE; NH; NJ; NM; NV; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SC; SD; TN; TX; UT; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; WY; AB; BC; MB; NB; NF; NS; NT; ON; PE; QC; SK; YT; Central America; South America; Mexico (Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, México, Sonora); Eurasia; Australia
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AZ; CA; CO; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IA; IL; IN; KS; KY; ME; MI; MO; MT; NC; ND; NE; NJ; NM; NV; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SD; TN; TX; UT; VA; WA; WI; WV; WY; AB; BC; ON; Eurasia; Africa; Atlantic Islands [Introduced in North America; likely introduced also in Mexico, Central America, South America]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Stem indument of Veronica peregrina has been used to distinguish var. xalapensis with a glandular-hairy stem (F. W. Pennell 1935), a variety that seems to be confined to drier places than the type variety. Variety laurentiana is also differentiated from var. peregrina in having a glandular-hairy stem, fleshier leaves, shorter stamens, smaller corollas, and slightly differently shaped capsules (Frère Marie-Victorin and J. Rousseau 1940).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Veronica anagallis-aquatica is widespread. It is not clear whether it is native to the flora area; it is certainly introduced in some states and commonly dispersed by human activity. The species varies with water availability. It is frequently confused with V. catenata. Ecological differences (see discussion under 15. V. catenata) may suggest that V. anagallis-aquatica does not occur in most parts of Canada and Alaska from which the species is reported but is present in some states excluded from the distribution area due to the lack of herbarium specimens seen (for example, Alabama, Arkansas, Idaho, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Vermont). Hybrids are frequent in Europe (V. ×lackschewitzkii J. Keller) and have been reported for California and Nebraska (L. R. Heckard and P. Rubtzoff 1977). The sterile hybrids never form capsules and bear relatively long inflorescences. Another closely related species, V. anagalloides Gussone (= V. salina Schur), is not present in North America.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 17, p. 314. FNA vol. 17, p. 313.
Parent taxa Plantaginaceae > Veronica Plantaginaceae > Veronica
Sibling taxa
V. agrestis, V. alpina, V. americana, V. anagallis-aquatica, V. argute-serrata, V. arvensis, V. beccabunga, V. biloba, V. catenata, V. chamaedrys, V. copelandii, V. cusickii, V. cymbalaria, V. dillenii, V. filiformis, V. fruticans, V. grandiflora, V. hederifolia, V. longifolia, V. officinalis, V. persica, V. polita, V. scutellata, V. serpyllifolia, V. spicata, V. stelleri, V. sublobata, V. teucrium, V. triloba, V. triphyllos, V. undulata, V. verna, V. wormskjoldii
V. agrestis, V. alpina, V. americana, V. argute-serrata, V. arvensis, V. beccabunga, V. biloba, V. catenata, V. chamaedrys, V. copelandii, V. cusickii, V. cymbalaria, V. dillenii, V. filiformis, V. fruticans, V. grandiflora, V. hederifolia, V. longifolia, V. officinalis, V. peregrina, V. persica, V. polita, V. scutellata, V. serpyllifolia, V. spicata, V. stelleri, V. sublobata, V. teucrium, V. triloba, V. triphyllos, V. undulata, V. verna, V. wormskjoldii
Synonyms V. peregrina var. laurentiana, V. peregrina subsp. xalapensis, V. peregrina var. xalapensis, V. sherwoodii, V. xalapensis V. anagallis-aquatica var. terrea, V. brittonii, V. comosa, V. glandifera, V. micromera
Name authority Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 1: 14. (1753) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 1: 12. (1753)
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