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twiggy mullein, wand mullein

broad-leaf mullein

Habit Biennials. Biennials.
Stems

50–100 cm, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous.

50–150(–200) cm, densely and loosely white-floccose, glabrescent, eglandular.

Leaves

surfaces densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 1–2 mm;

blade elliptic to elliptic-obovate, 8–20(–30) × 2.5–8(–15) cm, base subrounded to broadly cuneate;

cauline not clasping, gradually smaller distally, base not decurrent, margins coarsely crenate to crenulate, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts acute to obtuse.

surfaces densely and loosely white-floccose, glabrescent, especially abaxially, sometimes thin-persistent adaxially, eglandular;

basal and proximal cauline sessile;

blade obovate to oblong-ovate, 12–30(–40) × 5–10(–15) cm, base attenuate;

cauline clasping or subclasping, gradually smaller distally, base not decurrent, margins crenate or subentire, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts acuminate.

Inflorescences

unbranched, narrowly cylindric, flowers remote, solitary in axils at least distally, sometimes 1(–5) at proximal nodes;

rachis densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs;

bracts linear-lanceolate, 8–20 mm, base not decurrent, apex long-acuminate, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs.

freely branched, broadly elliptic to ovate panicle, flowers becoming remote in fruit, in clusters of 2–5;

rachis densely and loosely white-floccose on both surfaces, easily separating, glabrescent, eglandular;

bracts linear, 3–5 mm, base not decurrent, apex acute, densely and loosely white-floccose on both surfaces, easily separating, glabrescent, eglandular.

Pedicels

free, (0–)1–3 mm;

bracteoles 2.

free, (1–)2–5(–7) mm;

bracteoles 2.

Flowers

calyx 4–9 mm, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs, lobes ovate-lanceolate to triangular or narrowly lanceolate;

corolla yellow, (25–)30–40 mm diam., pellucid glands absent or relatively few;

proximal filaments glabrous at least distally, distal pair villous, hairs purplish to violet or whitish;

stigma capitate.

calyx 2–3.5 mm, densely and loosely white-floccose on both surfaces, easily separating, glabrescent, eglandular, lobes linear-lanceolate;

corolla yellow, 18–20 mm diam., pellucid glands numerous;

filaments villous, hairs white;

stigma capitate.

Capsules

ovoid-globular to subglobular, 6–10 mm, stipitate-glandular.

ellipsoid-globular, 3–5(–8) mm, glabrescent.

Verbascum virgatum

Verbascum pulverulentum

Phenology Flowering Apr–Jun(–Oct). Flowering Jul–Sep.
Habitat Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites. Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites.
Elevation 10–2000 m. [0–6600 ft.] 20–30 m. [100–100 ft.]
Discussion

The occurrence of Verbascum virgatum in Nova Scotia may be historic; Ruth collected specimens from 1940 through 1960 from East Chester, Sydney, and Wolfville; it apparently has not been seen there subsequently. It also may be historic in British Columbia.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Verbascum pulverulentum is recognized by its densely white-floccose vestiture (separating easily in clumps from the stems and leaf surfaces), non-decurrent cauline leaves, freely branched inflorescences with remote fruiting clusters, and relatively small flowers.

Verbascum pulverulentum was discovered in the flora area in 1999 as a weed in the Washington Park Arboretum, Seattle (A. L. Jacobsen et al. 2001). These plants were clearly seen as growing outside of cultivation at the time, and plants were collected again in 2005, suggesting that V. pulverulentum persists at the arboretum site.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Distribution
from FNA
AL; AZ; CA; FL; GA; ID; IL; IN; LA; NC; NM; NV; NY; OH; PA; SC; TX; UT; BC; NS; ON; QC; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Mexico (Coahuila), South America (Argentina, Chile), s Asia (India), Pacific Islands (Hawaii, New Zealand), Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
WA; Europe [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Pacific Islands (New Zealand)]
[BONAP county map]
Parent taxa Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum
Sibling taxa
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus, V. virgatum
Synonyms V. floccosum
Name authority Stokes: in W. Withering, Bot. Arr. Brit. Pl. ed. 2, 1: 227. (1787) Villars: Prosp. Hist. Pl. Dauphiné, 22. (1779)
Source Flora of North America vol. 17, p. 347. Flora of North America vol. 17, p. 350.
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