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twiggy mullein, wand mullein

black mullein, dark mullein

Habit Biennials. Perennials.
Stems

50–100 cm, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous.

50–120 cm, sparsely tomentose to glabrate, glabrescent, eglandular.

Leaves

surfaces densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 1–2 mm;

blade elliptic to elliptic-obovate, 8–20(–30) × 2.5–8(–15) cm, base subrounded to broadly cuneate;

cauline not clasping, gradually smaller distally, base not decurrent, margins coarsely crenate to crenulate, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts acute to obtuse.

surfaces sparsely tomentose to glabrate, abaxial soon glabrescent, sometimes both glabrate, eglandular;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 5–15(–20) mm;

blade lanceolate to ovate or oblong, 12–30 × 5–12(–15) cm, base shallowly cordate to nearly truncate;

cauline not clasping or distal ones clasping, gradually smaller distally, base not decurrent, margins crenate, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts acute.

Inflorescences

unbranched, narrowly cylindric, flowers remote, solitary in axils at least distally, sometimes 1(–5) at proximal nodes;

rachis densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs;

bracts linear-lanceolate, 8–20 mm, base not decurrent, apex long-acuminate, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs.

unbranched, sometimes branched from proximal nodes, narrowly conic panicle, flowers loosely overlapping, in clusters of 5–10;

rachis sparsely tomentose to glabrate, glabrescent, thinly tomentose on abaxial leaf surfaces, not completely obscuring epidermis, sometimes glabrate on both surfaces, eglandular;

bracts linear, 4–7(–15) mm, base not decurrent, apex acute, sparsely tomentose to glabrate, glabrescent, thinly tomentose on abaxial leaf surfaces, not completely obscuring epidermis, sometimes glabrate on both surfaces, eglandular.

Pedicels

free, (0–)1–3 mm;

bracteoles 2.

free, 5–12(–15) mm;

bracteoles 2.

Flowers

calyx 4–9 mm, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs, lobes ovate-lanceolate to triangular or narrowly lanceolate;

corolla yellow, (25–)30–40 mm diam., pellucid glands absent or relatively few;

proximal filaments glabrous at least distally, distal pair villous, hairs purplish to violet or whitish;

stigma capitate.

calyx 3–4.5 mm, sparsely tomentose to glabrate, glabrescent, thinly tomentose on abaxial leaf surfaces, not completely obscuring epidermis, sometimes glabrate on both surfaces, eglandular, lobes linear-oblong to linear-lanceolate;

corolla yellow to cream, 18–25 mm diam., pellucid glands relatively numerous;

filaments villous, hairs purple to violet;

stigma capitate.

Capsules

ovoid-globular to subglobular, 6–10 mm, stipitate-glandular.

ovoid-ellipsoid to ellipsoid-obovoid, 4–5 mm, tomentose.

Verbascum virgatum

Verbascum nigrum

Phenology Flowering Apr–Jun(–Oct). Flowering Jun–Aug.
Habitat Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites. Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites.
Elevation 10–2000 m. [0–6600 ft.] 100–300(–700) m. [300–1000(–2300) ft.]
Discussion

The occurrence of Verbascum virgatum in Nova Scotia may be historic; Ruth collected specimens from 1940 through 1960 from East Chester, Sydney, and Wolfville; it apparently has not been seen there subsequently. It also may be historic in British Columbia.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Verbascum nigrum is recognized by its petiolate, basally cordate to truncate basal leaves, bicolored or dark on both surfaces, dark-colored stems, usually unbranched inflorescences, relatively small flowers, and narrow calyx lobes. Plants in the flora area appear to be subsp. nigrum, with a mostly unbranched inflorescence; subsp. abietinum (Borbás) I. K. Ferguson, found in Germany, has freely branched inflorescences.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Distribution
from FNA
AL; AZ; CA; FL; GA; ID; IL; IN; LA; NC; NM; NV; NY; OH; PA; SC; TX; UT; BC; NS; ON; QC; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Mexico (Coahuila), South America (Argentina, Chile), s Asia (India), Pacific Islands (Hawaii, New Zealand), Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
IL; MA; MN; NH; NJ; PA; WI; AB; ON; SK; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America]
[BONAP county map]
Parent taxa Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum
Sibling taxa
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus, V. virgatum
Name authority Stokes: in W. Withering, Bot. Arr. Brit. Pl. ed. 2, 1: 227. (1787) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 1: 178. (1753)
Source Flora of North America vol. 17, p. 347. Flora of North America vol. 17, p. 350.
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