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twiggy mullein, wand mullein

dense-flower mullein, verbascum densiflorum

broad-leaf mullein

Habit Biennials. Biennials. Biennials.
Stems

50–100 cm, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous.

30–120 cm, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular.

50–150(–200) cm, densely and loosely white-floccose, glabrescent, eglandular.

Leaves

surfaces densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 1–2 mm;

blade elliptic to elliptic-obovate, 8–20(–30) × 2.5–8(–15) cm, base subrounded to broadly cuneate;

cauline not clasping, gradually smaller distally, base not decurrent, margins coarsely crenate to crenulate, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts acute to obtuse.

surfaces densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 10–30 mm;

blade obovate to oblong-ovate, 5–25(–30) × 4–8(–12) cm, base attenuate;

cauline not clasping, gradually smaller distally, base long-decurrent, margins crenate, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts long-acuminate.

surfaces densely and loosely white-floccose, glabrescent, especially abaxially, sometimes thin-persistent adaxially, eglandular;

basal and proximal cauline sessile;

blade obovate to oblong-ovate, 12–30(–40) × 5–10(–15) cm, base attenuate;

cauline clasping or subclasping, gradually smaller distally, base not decurrent, margins crenate or subentire, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts acuminate.

Inflorescences

unbranched, narrowly cylindric, flowers remote, solitary in axils at least distally, sometimes 1(–5) at proximal nodes;

rachis densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs;

bracts linear-lanceolate, 8–20 mm, base not decurrent, apex long-acuminate, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs.

unbranched, narrowly cylindric, sometimes branched from proximal nodes, forming a panicle, flowers densely overlapping, in clusters of 2–8;

rachis densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular;

bracts ovate, 15–40 mm, base decurrent, apex long-acuminate, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular.

freely branched, broadly elliptic to ovate panicle, flowers becoming remote in fruit, in clusters of 2–5;

rachis densely and loosely white-floccose on both surfaces, easily separating, glabrescent, eglandular;

bracts linear, 3–5 mm, base not decurrent, apex acute, densely and loosely white-floccose on both surfaces, easily separating, glabrescent, eglandular.

Pedicels

free, (0–)1–3 mm;

bracteoles 2.

free or adnate to rachis at base, 3–15 mm;

bracteoles 2.

free, (1–)2–5(–7) mm;

bracteoles 2.

Flowers

calyx 4–9 mm, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs, lobes ovate-lanceolate to triangular or narrowly lanceolate;

corolla yellow, (25–)30–40 mm diam., pellucid glands absent or relatively few;

proximal filaments glabrous at least distally, distal pair villous, hairs purplish to violet or whitish;

stigma capitate.

calyx 5–12 mm, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular, lobes ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate;

corolla yellow, 30–55 mm diam., pellucid glands absent or relatively few;

proximal filaments glabrous, distal pair villous, hairs white or yellow, anthers orange;

stigma spatulate, base decurrent.

calyx 2–3.5 mm, densely and loosely white-floccose on both surfaces, easily separating, glabrescent, eglandular, lobes linear-lanceolate;

corolla yellow, 18–20 mm diam., pellucid glands numerous;

filaments villous, hairs white;

stigma capitate.

Capsules

ovoid-globular to subglobular, 6–10 mm, stipitate-glandular.

elliptic-ovoid, 5–8 mm, tomentose.

ellipsoid-globular, 3–5(–8) mm, glabrescent.

Verbascum virgatum

Verbascum densiflorum

Verbascum pulverulentum

Phenology Flowering Apr–Jun(–Oct). Flowering May–Aug. Flowering Jul–Sep.
Habitat Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites. Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites. Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites.
Elevation 10–2000 m. [0–6600 ft.] 50–300 m. [200–1000 ft.] 20–30 m. [100–100 ft.]
Distribution
from FNA
AL; AZ; CA; FL; GA; ID; IL; IN; LA; NC; NM; NV; NY; OH; PA; SC; TX; UT; BC; NS; ON; QC; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Mexico (Coahuila), South America (Argentina, Chile), s Asia (India), Pacific Islands (Hawaii, New Zealand), Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
IA; MA; MI; MO; WI; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in South America (Chile), Australia]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
WA; Europe [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Pacific Islands (New Zealand)]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

The occurrence of Verbascum virgatum in Nova Scotia may be historic; Ruth collected specimens from 1940 through 1960 from East Chester, Sydney, and Wolfville; it apparently has not been seen there subsequently. It also may be historic in British Columbia.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Verbascum ×humnickii Franchet is a hybrid between V. densiflorum and V. thapsus.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Verbascum pulverulentum is recognized by its densely white-floccose vestiture (separating easily in clumps from the stems and leaf surfaces), non-decurrent cauline leaves, freely branched inflorescences with remote fruiting clusters, and relatively small flowers.

Verbascum pulverulentum was discovered in the flora area in 1999 as a weed in the Washington Park Arboretum, Seattle (A. L. Jacobsen et al. 2001). These plants were clearly seen as growing outside of cultivation at the time, and plants were collected again in 2005, suggesting that V. pulverulentum persists at the arboretum site.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 17, p. 347. FNA vol. 17, p. 348. FNA vol. 17, p. 350.
Parent taxa Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum
Sibling taxa
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus, V. virgatum
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus, V. virgatum
Synonyms V. thapsiforme V. floccosum
Name authority Stokes: in W. Withering, Bot. Arr. Brit. Pl. ed. 2, 1: 227. (1787) Bertoloni: Rar. Lig. [Ital.] Pl. 3: 52. (1810) Villars: Prosp. Hist. Pl. Dauphiné, 22. (1779)
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