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twiggy mullein, wand mullein

dense-flower mullein, verbascum densiflorum

clasping mullein, orange mullein, woolly mullein

Habit Biennials. Biennials. Biennials.
Stems

50–100 cm, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous.

30–120 cm, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular.

(30–)50–200 cm, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular.

Leaves

surfaces densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 1–2 mm;

blade elliptic to elliptic-obovate, 8–20(–30) × 2.5–8(–15) cm, base subrounded to broadly cuneate;

cauline not clasping, gradually smaller distally, base not decurrent, margins coarsely crenate to crenulate, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts acute to obtuse.

surfaces densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 10–30 mm;

blade obovate to oblong-ovate, 5–25(–30) × 4–8(–12) cm, base attenuate;

cauline not clasping, gradually smaller distally, base long-decurrent, margins crenate, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts long-acuminate.

surfaces densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 40–80 mm;

blade ovate-lanceolate to ovate-elliptic or oblong, (10–)15–25(–35) × 4–10(–15) cm, base attenuate;

cauline subauriculate-clasping, gradually smaller distally, base not decurrent, rarely slightly so, margins entire or shallowly crenate, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts caudate-acuminate to short-acuminate.

Inflorescences

unbranched, narrowly cylindric, flowers remote, solitary in axils at least distally, sometimes 1(–5) at proximal nodes;

rachis densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs;

bracts linear-lanceolate, 8–20 mm, base not decurrent, apex long-acuminate, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs.

unbranched, narrowly cylindric, sometimes branched from proximal nodes, forming a panicle, flowers densely overlapping, in clusters of 2–8;

rachis densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular;

bracts ovate, 15–40 mm, base decurrent, apex long-acuminate, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular.

unbranched, narrowly cylindric, flowers densely overlapping or remote proximally, in clusters of 2–9;

rachis densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular;

bracts ovate-lanceolate, 9–15 mm, base short-decurrent or not at all, apex acute to short-acuminate, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular.

Pedicels

free, (0–)1–3 mm;

bracteoles 2.

free or adnate to rachis at base, 3–15 mm;

bracteoles 2.

adnate to rachis at base, 2–8(–15) mm;

bracteoles 2.

Flowers

calyx 4–9 mm, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs, lobes ovate-lanceolate to triangular or narrowly lanceolate;

corolla yellow, (25–)30–40 mm diam., pellucid glands absent or relatively few;

proximal filaments glabrous at least distally, distal pair villous, hairs purplish to violet or whitish;

stigma capitate.

calyx 5–12 mm, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular, lobes ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate;

corolla yellow, 30–55 mm diam., pellucid glands absent or relatively few;

proximal filaments glabrous, distal pair villous, hairs white or yellow, anthers orange;

stigma spatulate, base decurrent.

calyx 5–12 mm, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular, lobes lanceolate to triangular;

corolla yellow, 30–55 mm diam., pellucid glands absent or relatively few;

proximal filaments glabrous at least distally, distal pair villous, hairs white or yellow;

stigma spatulate, base decurrent.

Capsules

ovoid-globular to subglobular, 6–10 mm, stipitate-glandular.

elliptic-ovoid, 5–8 mm, tomentose.

elliptic-ovoid, 5–8 mm, tomentose.

2n

= 32.

Verbascum virgatum

Verbascum densiflorum

Verbascum phlomoides

Phenology Flowering Apr–Jun(–Oct). Flowering May–Aug. Flowering Jun–Aug.
Habitat Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites. Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites. Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites.
Elevation 10–2000 m. [0–6600 ft.] 50–300 m. [200–1000 ft.] 0–600 m. [0–2000 ft.]
Distribution
from FNA
AL; AZ; CA; FL; GA; ID; IL; IN; LA; NC; NM; NV; NY; OH; PA; SC; TX; UT; BC; NS; ON; QC; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Mexico (Coahuila), South America (Argentina, Chile), s Asia (India), Pacific Islands (Hawaii, New Zealand), Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
IA; MA; MI; MO; WI; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in South America (Chile), Australia]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AR; CO; CT; DC; DE; GA; IA; IL; IN; KY; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MO; NC; NJ; NY; OH; OR; PA; RI; SC; TN; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; AB; BC; MB; ON; PE; QC; SK; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in South America (Ecuador), Pacific Islands (New Zealand)]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

The occurrence of Verbascum virgatum in Nova Scotia may be historic; Ruth collected specimens from 1940 through 1960 from East Chester, Sydney, and Wolfville; it apparently has not been seen there subsequently. It also may be historic in British Columbia.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Verbascum ×humnickii Franchet is a hybrid between V. densiflorum and V. thapsus.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

In the flora area, Verbascum phlomoides is known from a single location each in Manitoba (near Roseisle) and Saskatchewan (near Moose Jaw). The record for Washington possibly is only a waif (King County, Seattle, in waste ground, introduced from Europe, 12 September 1936, W. J. Eyerdam s.n., SMU), because it apparently has not been recorded there since.

Verbascum ×kerneri Fritsch is a hybrid between V. phlomoides and V. thapsus.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 17, p. 347. FNA vol. 17, p. 348. FNA vol. 17, p. 348.
Parent taxa Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum
Sibling taxa
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus, V. virgatum
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus, V. virgatum
Synonyms V. thapsiforme
Name authority Stokes: in W. Withering, Bot. Arr. Brit. Pl. ed. 2, 1: 227. (1787) Bertoloni: Rar. Lig. [Ital.] Pl. 3: 52. (1810) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 1194. (1753)
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