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twiggy mullein, wand mullein

dense-flower mullein, verbascum densiflorum

moth mullein

Habit Biennials. Biennials. Annuals or biennials.
Stems

50–100 cm, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous.

30–120 cm, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular.

60–150 cm, glabrous or glabrate.

Leaves

surfaces densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 1–2 mm;

blade elliptic to elliptic-obovate, 8–20(–30) × 2.5–8(–15) cm, base subrounded to broadly cuneate;

cauline not clasping, gradually smaller distally, base not decurrent, margins coarsely crenate to crenulate, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts acute to obtuse.

surfaces densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 10–30 mm;

blade obovate to oblong-ovate, 5–25(–30) × 4–8(–12) cm, base attenuate;

cauline not clasping, gradually smaller distally, base long-decurrent, margins crenate, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts long-acuminate.

surfaces glabrous or glabrate;

basal and proximal cauline with petiole 1–2 mm;

blade obovate to oblanceolate, oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, 4–12(–20) × 1.5–5 cm, base subrounded to broadly cuneate;

cauline subclasping, gradually smaller distally, base not decurrent, margins coarsely and regularly crenate-dentate to dentate or pinnately dentate-lobed, apex of distal cauline and floral bracts acute.

Inflorescences

unbranched, narrowly cylindric, flowers remote, solitary in axils at least distally, sometimes 1(–5) at proximal nodes;

rachis densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs;

bracts linear-lanceolate, 8–20 mm, base not decurrent, apex long-acuminate, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs.

unbranched, narrowly cylindric, sometimes branched from proximal nodes, forming a panicle, flowers densely overlapping, in clusters of 2–8;

rachis densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular;

bracts ovate, 15–40 mm, base decurrent, apex long-acuminate, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular.

unbranched, rarely branched from proximal nodes, narrowly cylindric, flowers remote, solitary in axils at least distally;

rachis stipitate-glandular, without other vestiture;

bracts ovate to lanceolate-ovate, 7–10(–15) mm, base decurrent, apex acute to short-acuminate, stipitate-glandular.

Pedicels

free, (0–)1–3 mm;

bracteoles 2.

free or adnate to rachis at base, 3–15 mm;

bracteoles 2.

free or adnate to rachis at base, 5–11(–15) mm;

bracteoles 0.

Flowers

calyx 4–9 mm, densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes also sparsely hirsute-villous with simple hairs, lobes ovate-lanceolate to triangular or narrowly lanceolate;

corolla yellow, (25–)30–40 mm diam., pellucid glands absent or relatively few;

proximal filaments glabrous at least distally, distal pair villous, hairs purplish to violet or whitish;

stigma capitate.

calyx 5–12 mm, densely and persistently tomentose, eglandular, lobes ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate;

corolla yellow, 30–55 mm diam., pellucid glands absent or relatively few;

proximal filaments glabrous, distal pair villous, hairs white or yellow, anthers orange;

stigma spatulate, base decurrent.

calyx 5–7 mm, stipitate-glandular, lobes linear-lanceolate to narrowly oblong;

corolla purple in bud, becoming yellow, yellow-orange, yellow with purple center, white, cream with red-tinged tips, or pink, 25–35 mm diam., pellucid glands absent or relatively few;

proximal filaments hairy, hairs purple, distal pair villous, hairs white and purple or violet;

stigma spatulate, base decurrent.

Capsules

ovoid-globular to subglobular, 6–10 mm, stipitate-glandular.

elliptic-ovoid, 5–8 mm, tomentose.

subglobular, 5–8 mm, sparsely stipitate-glandular apically.

2n

= 18, 30, 32.

Verbascum virgatum

Verbascum densiflorum

Verbascum blattaria

Phenology Flowering Apr–Jun(–Oct). Flowering May–Aug. Flowering May–Jul(–Oct).
Habitat Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites. Fields, roadsides, disturbed sites. Stream banks, lake edges, ditches, dry hills, railroad rights-of-way, orchards, prairies, open oak woods, rocky meadows, roadsides, fields, disturbed sites.
Elevation 10–2000 m. [0–6600 ft.] 50–300 m. [200–1000 ft.] 0–1300 m. [0–4300 ft.]
Distribution
from FNA
AL; AZ; CA; FL; GA; ID; IL; IN; LA; NC; NM; NV; NY; OH; PA; SC; TX; UT; BC; NS; ON; QC; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Mexico (Coahuila), South America (Argentina, Chile), s Asia (India), Pacific Islands (Hawaii, New Zealand), Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
IA; MA; MI; MO; WI; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in South America (Chile), Australia]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; AR; AZ; CA; CO; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IA; ID; IL; IN; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MO; MS; MT; NC; ND; NE; NH; NJ; NM; NV; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SC; SD; TN; TX; UT; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; BC; NB; ON; QC; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Pacific Islands (Hawaii, New Zealand), Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

The occurrence of Verbascum virgatum in Nova Scotia may be historic; Ruth collected specimens from 1940 through 1960 from East Chester, Sydney, and Wolfville; it apparently has not been seen there subsequently. It also may be historic in British Columbia.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Verbascum ×humnickii Franchet is a hybrid between V. densiflorum and V. thapsus.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Verbascum ×pterocaulon Franchet is a hybrid between V. blattaria and V. thapsus.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 17, p. 347. FNA vol. 17, p. 348. FNA vol. 17, p. 346.
Parent taxa Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum Scrophulariaceae > Verbascum
Sibling taxa
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus
V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus, V. virgatum
V. bombyciferum, V. densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. nigrum, V. phlomoides, V. phoeniceum, V. pulverulentum, V. sinuatum, V. speciosum, V. thapsus, V. virgatum
Synonyms V. thapsiforme
Name authority Stokes: in W. Withering, Bot. Arr. Brit. Pl. ed. 2, 1: 227. (1787) Bertoloni: Rar. Lig. [Ital.] Pl. 3: 52. (1810) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 1: 178. (1753)
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