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broad-leaf starflower, northern starflower, starflower, western starflower

arctic starflower, northern starflower


10–25 cm.

5–30 cm.


mostly whorled at stem apex, some alternate on proximal stem;

blades of distal leaves elliptic to suborbiculate, (2.4–)4–11 cm × 15–55 mm (narrower in some plants along Vancouver Island and Washington coast), widest ± at midlength (proximal leaves abruptly much smaller, 0.1–0.5 cm × 0.7–1.3 mm, ± scalelike), apex rounded to acute.

whorled or densely crowded at stem apex, becoming alternate and progressively or abruptly smaller proximally;

blades of distal leaves obovate or oblanceolate to spatulate (sometimes elliptic), 2–6 cm × 9–26 mm, widest beyond midlength, (proximal leaves smaller, 0.2–2 cm × 1–13 mm, only proximalmost ± scalelike), apex acute to rounded or obtuse.


1–5, 2.9–4.6 cm, shorter than to equaling leaves (sometimes longer in fruit), glabrous or sparsely glandular.

1–2, (1.4–)1.8–5.5 cm, equaling or longer than leaves, sparsely to densely glandular, at least proximally.


corolla pink, rose, or pinkish lavender, 4.5–8.8 mm, lobes ovate to lanceolate, apex acuminate or abruptly acute.

corolla usually white, 5–9 mm, lobes ovate to broadly elliptic or lanceolate, apex acute to acuminate (or apiculate).


= 84; 70+, 90, 100, 110, 130, 160, 170 (all Siberia);

ca. 128 (Norway); 112, 160 (Europe); 170 (Belarus).

Trientalis latifolia

Trientalis europaea

Phenology Flowering summer. Flowering summer.
Habitat Moist coniferous forests, stream banks, ocean cliffs Arctic tundra, moist spruce forests, stream banks, moist open meadows, sphagnum bogs and swamps
Elevation 0-1500 m (0-4900 ft) 0-1600 m (0-5200 ft)
from FNA
[WildflowerSearch map]
from FNA
AK; CA; ID; OR; WA; AB; BC; NT; SK; YT; n Eurasia
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In British Columbia, Trientalis latifolia is known from scattered populations along the coast and the American border. Specimens from a disjunct population in central Yukon (E. Hultén 1968; W. J. Cody 1996) were not examined.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

The Alaskan populations of Trientalis europaea have been segregated as T. arctica or T. europaea var. aleutica, based primarily on the number and size of leaves. E. Hultén (1927–1930, vol. 4) reduced these to T. europaea subsp. arctica; he indicated that they (along with populations from eastern Siberia) are merely “geographic races.” He later (1968) mapped them as discrete entities. Other taxonomists (e.g., S. L. Welsh 1974) found intermediates, which I corroborated by examination of herbarium specimens. I believe that a conservative approach is warranted until additional research is undertaken.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 8, p. 305. FNA vol. 8, p. 304.
Parent taxa Myrsinaceae > Trientalis Myrsinaceae > Trientalis
Sibling taxa
T. borealis, T. europaea
T. borealis, T. latifolia
Synonyms Alsinanthemum europaeum var. latifolium, T. borealis subsp. latifolia, T. europaea var. latifolia T. arctica, T. europaea var. aleutica, T. europaea subsp. arctica, T. europaea var. arctica
Name authority Hooker: Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 121. 1838 , Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 1: 344. 1753 ,
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