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Rubus bartonianus

Barton's raspberry, bartonberry

southern dewberry

Habit Shrubs, 8–25 dm, unarmed. Shrubs, to 3(–7) dm, sometimes climbing higher through other vegetation, moderately to densely armed.
Stems

erect, sparsely short-hairy, glabrescent, eglandular, not pruinose.

biennial, initially low-arching, then falling and creeping (or climbing through other vegetation), glabrous or moderately hairy, sparsely to densely short- to long-stipitate-glandular, not pruinose;

prickles moderate to dense, recurved, sometimes distally slender, 1–4 mm, broad-based;

bristles absent or sparse to dense, erect to retrorse, red to purple, rarely green, slender, weak, gland-tipped.

Leaves

deciduous, simple;

stipules lanceolate, 4–6 mm;

blade cordate to broadly ovate, (2–)2.5–4(–5) × (2.5–)3.5–4.5(–5.5) cm, base deeply cordate, 3–5-lobed, lobe apices acute to obtuse, margins coarsely doubly dentate, abaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely hairy, eglandular or sparsely stipitate-glandular.

persistent or semipersistent, ternate to palmately compound, lustrous;

stipules filiform, linear, or lanceolate, 2–12(–15) mm;

leaflets 3–5, terminal narrowly elliptic or ovate to obovate, 2–8.5 × 0.7–4.5 cm, base rounded to cuneate, unlobed, margins moderately to coarsely serrate to doubly serrate, apex acute to acuminate, abaxial surfaces with hooked prickles on midvein, glabrous or sparsely to moderately hairy, eglandular or sparsely short-stipitate-glandular along central vein.

Inflorescences

1-flowered.

terminal on short shoots, usually appearing axillary, 1(–3)-flowered.

Pedicels

moderately hairy, eglandular or sparsely stipitate-glandular.

prickles and, often, bristles moderate to dense, recurved, moderately to densely hairy, sparsely to moderately sessile- to short-stipitate-glandular.

Flowers

bisexual;

petals white, obovate, (15–)20–25 mm;

filaments filiform;

ovaries glabrous, styles clavate, villous.

bisexual;

petals white to pink, elliptic to obovate, 10–16(–25) mm;

filaments filiform;

ovaries glabrous.

Fruits

deep red, hemispheric, to 1 cm;

drupelets 10–30, coherent, separating from torus.

black, globose to ovoid, 1–1.5(–2) cm;

drupelets 10–50, strongly coherent, separating with torus attached.

2n

= 14.

Rubus bartonianus

Rubus trivialis

Phenology Flowering Mar–May. Flowering Jan–Jun.
Habitat Dry, rocky slopes Open woodlands, savannas, prairies, meadows, sand dunes, disturbed areas, dry to seasonally wet soil
Elevation 300–400 m [1000–1300 ft] 0–200 m [0–700 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
ID; OR
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; AR; FL; GA; IL; KS; KY; LA; MO; MS; NC; OK; SC; TN; TX; VA; Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas)
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Of conservation concern.

Rubus bartonianus is distinguished from the other flowering raspberries within its geographic range by its erect, unarmed stems, relatively small, simple leaves with acute to obtuse lobes, deeply cordate bases, sparsely hairy or glabrous abaxial surfaces, relatively large flowers with white petals, and densely long-hairy, clavate styles. The leaves superficially resemble those of Acer glabrum or some species of Ribes.

Rubus bartonianus is most similar to R. neomexicanus but especially R. deliciosus. The species is known only from the Snake River Canyon of Idaho and Oregon.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Rubus trivialis is distinguished from other species of Rubus by its frequently glandular-bristly and generally creeping stems, abundant recurved prickles, and typically persistent or semipersistent, lustrous primocane leaves with relatively narrow leaflets. Although emerging primocanes typically reach to 30 cm above the ground, vigorous plants can have new primocanes standing erect to 70 cm that later fall to the ground or onto adjacent vegetation as they continue to enlarge. L. H. Bailey (1941–1945) believed that there was no clear separation between members of sect. Persistentes Fernald (referred to by Bailey as sect. Verotriviales [illegitimate sectional name for R. trivialis and associated species]) and sect. Procumbentes (by Bailey as sect. Flagellares; including R. flagellaris and related species). All characteristics that he recognized for distinguishing sect. Persistentes from sect. Procumbentes are often present in the latter, with the exception of hispid-setose stems, and glabrous plants of R. trivialis are difficult to distinguish from some plants of R. flagellaris; to include the latter species within the former would be reasonable.

Rubus ×inferior L. H. Bailey is a putative hybrid of R. trivialis and R. cuneifolius.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 9, p. 36. FNA vol. 9, p. 54.
Parent taxa Rosaceae > subfam. Rosoideae > tribe Rubeae > Rubus Rosaceae > subfam. Rosoideae > tribe Rubeae > Rubus
Sibling taxa
R. allegheniensis, R. arcticus, R. bifrons, R. caesius, R. canadensis, R. chamaemorus, R. cuneifolius, R. deliciosus, R. flagellaris, R. glaucifolius, R. hispidus, R. idaeus, R. illecebrosus, R. laciniatus, R. lasiococcus, R. leucodermis, R. neomexicanus, R. nivalis, R. niveus, R. nutkanus, R. occidentalis, R. odoratus, R. parviflorus, R. parvifolius, R. pascuus, R. pedatus, R. pensilvanicus, R. phoenicolasius, R. pubescens, R. repens, R. saxatilis, R. setosus, R. spectabilis, R. trivialis, R. ulmifolius, R. ursinus, R. vestitus
R. allegheniensis, R. arcticus, R. bartonianus, R. bifrons, R. caesius, R. canadensis, R. chamaemorus, R. cuneifolius, R. deliciosus, R. flagellaris, R. glaucifolius, R. hispidus, R. idaeus, R. illecebrosus, R. laciniatus, R. lasiococcus, R. leucodermis, R. neomexicanus, R. nivalis, R. niveus, R. nutkanus, R. occidentalis, R. odoratus, R. parviflorus, R. parvifolius, R. pascuus, R. pedatus, R. pensilvanicus, R. phoenicolasius, R. pubescens, R. repens, R. saxatilis, R. setosus, R. spectabilis, R. ulmifolius, R. ursinus, R. vestitus
Synonyms R. agilis, R. continentalis, R. duplaris, R. ictus, R. lucidus, R. macvaughii, R. mirus, R. nessianus, R. riograndis, R. rubrisetus, R. sons, R. tallahasseanus
Name authority M. Peck: Rhodora 36: 267. (1934) Michaux: Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 296. (1803)
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