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Rubus bartonianus

Barton's raspberry, bartonberry

Canadian or smooth highbush blackberry, ronce du Canada, smooth blackberry

Habit Shrubs, 8–25 dm, unarmed. Shrubs, 5–30 dm, unarmed or armed.
Stems

erect, sparsely short-hairy, glabrescent, eglandular, not pruinose.

biennial, arching, glabrous, eglandular or sparsely sessile- to short-stipitate-glandular, not pruinose;

prickles absent or sparse, erect or slightly retrorse, slender, 2–5 mm, narrow- to broad-based.

Leaves

deciduous, simple;

stipules lanceolate, 4–6 mm;

blade cordate to broadly ovate, (2–)2.5–4(–5) × (2.5–)3.5–4.5(–5.5) cm, base deeply cordate, 3–5-lobed, lobe apices acute to obtuse, margins coarsely doubly dentate, abaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely hairy, eglandular or sparsely stipitate-glandular.

deciduous, usually palmately compound, lustrous;

stipules filiform to narrowly lanceolate, (5–)8–15(–22) mm;

leaflets (3–)5, terminal ovate to elliptic, (3–)7–9(–11) × (3–)4–5(–6) cm, base rounded to shallowly cordate, unlobed, margins finely to coarsely serrate or doubly serrate, apex acuminate to attenuate, abaxial surfaces sometimes with hooked prickles on midvein, glabrous or puberulent, eglandular.

Inflorescences

1-flowered.

terminal on short shoots, sometimes appearing axillary, (5–)15–25-flowered, racemiform.

Pedicels

moderately hairy, eglandular or sparsely stipitate-glandular.

usually unarmed, hairy, eglandular or sparsely sessile- to short-stipitate-glandular.

Flowers

bisexual;

petals white, obovate, (15–)20–25 mm;

filaments filiform;

ovaries glabrous, styles clavate, villous.

bisexual;

petals white, obovate to elliptic, 8–22 mm;

filaments filiform;

ovaries glabrous.

Fruits

deep red, hemispheric, to 1 cm;

drupelets 10–30, coherent, separating from torus.

black, globose to short-cylindric, 1–2 cm;

drupelets 10–75, strongly coherent, separating with torus attached.

2n

= 14, 21.

Rubus bartonianus

Rubus canadensis

Phenology Flowering Mar–May. Flowering May–Jul.
Habitat Dry, rocky slopes Mountainous highlands, cool, shaded intermediate regions within deciduous and boreal forests, margins of lakes and woods
Elevation 300–400 m [1000–1300 ft] 0–2000 m [0–6600 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
ID; OR
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; CT; DC; GA; KY; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; NC; NH; NJ; NY; OH; PA; RI; SC; TN; VA; VT; WI; WV; NB; NF; NS; ON; PE; QC; SPM [Introduced in Europe (Poland)]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Of conservation concern.

Rubus bartonianus is distinguished from the other flowering raspberries within its geographic range by its erect, unarmed stems, relatively small, simple leaves with acute to obtuse lobes, deeply cordate bases, sparsely hairy or glabrous abaxial surfaces, relatively large flowers with white petals, and densely long-hairy, clavate styles. The leaves superficially resemble those of Acer glabrum or some species of Ribes.

Rubus bartonianus is most similar to R. neomexicanus but especially R. deliciosus. The species is known only from the Snake River Canyon of Idaho and Oregon.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Rubus canadensis has a wide range and is the most northerly of all the highbush blackberries. The species is morphologically similar to R. allegheniensis except that the plants have little armature, are not as hairy, and have no glands. It also has characteristically lustrous leaves. The open and edge habitats in which it grows can greatly influence the phenotype, as with most highbush blackberries. At higher elevations or in poorer soil conditions, the plants are smaller; when partially shaded, leaves of primocanes may be larger. Leaves of floricanes vary in size and shape and are unreliable for identification. Because of the variation, multiple names have been erected, especially locally; it is felt that a stricter approach to defining it is prudent. Some of the names traditionally associated with sect. Canadenses (L. H. Bailey) L. H. Bailey are here associated with other Rubus species or are considered to refer to putative hybrids.

The following nothospecies names are based on putative hybrids involving Rubus canadensis and: R. allegheniensis (R. ×forestalis L. H. Bailey, R. ×immanis Ashe); R. flagellaris (R. ×lepagei L. H. Bailey, R. ×rixosus L. H. Bailey); R. hispidus (R. ×novanglicus L. H. Bailey); R. pensilvanicus (R. ×amabilis Blanchard [not Focke], R. ×amicalis Blanchard, R. ×elegantulus Blanchard [= R. canadensis var. elegantulus (Blanchard) Farwell], R. ×multilicius L. H. Bailey, R. ×noveboracus L. H. Bailey, R. ×pergratus Blanchard [= R. canadensis var. pergratus (Blanchard) L. H. Bailey], R. ×crux Ashe); R. setosus (R. ×miscix L. H. Bailey [based on R. ×peculiaris Blanchard (not R. peculiaris Sampaio)]).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 9, p. 36. FNA vol. 9, p. 37.
Parent taxa Rosaceae > subfam. Rosoideae > tribe Rubeae > Rubus Rosaceae > subfam. Rosoideae > tribe Rubeae > Rubus
Sibling taxa
R. allegheniensis, R. arcticus, R. bifrons, R. caesius, R. canadensis, R. chamaemorus, R. cuneifolius, R. deliciosus, R. flagellaris, R. glaucifolius, R. hispidus, R. idaeus, R. illecebrosus, R. laciniatus, R. lasiococcus, R. leucodermis, R. neomexicanus, R. nivalis, R. niveus, R. nutkanus, R. occidentalis, R. odoratus, R. parviflorus, R. parvifolius, R. pascuus, R. pedatus, R. pensilvanicus, R. phoenicolasius, R. pubescens, R. repens, R. saxatilis, R. setosus, R. spectabilis, R. trivialis, R. ulmifolius, R. ursinus, R. vestitus
R. allegheniensis, R. arcticus, R. bartonianus, R. bifrons, R. caesius, R. chamaemorus, R. cuneifolius, R. deliciosus, R. flagellaris, R. glaucifolius, R. hispidus, R. idaeus, R. illecebrosus, R. laciniatus, R. lasiococcus, R. leucodermis, R. neomexicanus, R. nivalis, R. niveus, R. nutkanus, R. occidentalis, R. odoratus, R. parviflorus, R. parvifolius, R. pascuus, R. pedatus, R. pensilvanicus, R. phoenicolasius, R. pubescens, R. repens, R. saxatilis, R. setosus, R. spectabilis, R. trivialis, R. ulmifolius, R. ursinus, R. vestitus
Synonyms R. argutus var. randii, R. besseyi, R. canadensis var. imus, R. illustris, R. kennedyanus, R. laetabilis, R. montensis
Name authority M. Peck: Rhodora 36: 267. (1934) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 1: 494. (1753)
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