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Rubus bartonianus

Barton's raspberry, bartonberry

European blackberry, Himalayan berry, Himalayan blackberry, twice-leaf blackberry

Habit Shrubs, 8–25 dm, unarmed. Shrubs, (3–)10–50 dm, armed.
Stems

erect, sparsely short-hairy, glabrescent, eglandular, not pruinose.

biennial, arching, sometimes creeping early or with age, sparsely to densely hairy, eglandular or sparsely sessile-glandular, not or weakly pruinose;

prickles moderately dense, hooked, retrorse, or erect, stout, 4–10 mm, broad- or narrow-based.

Leaves

deciduous, simple;

stipules lanceolate, 4–6 mm;

blade cordate to broadly ovate, (2–)2.5–4(–5) × (2.5–)3.5–4.5(–5.5) cm, base deeply cordate, 3–5-lobed, lobe apices acute to obtuse, margins coarsely doubly dentate, abaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely hairy, eglandular or sparsely stipitate-glandular.

deciduous to semievergreen, palmately compound;

stipules filiform to linear, 7–15 mm;

leaflets 3–5, terminal elliptic or ovate to suborbiculate, 6–15 × 4–9 cm, base rounded to shallowly cordate, unlobed, margins moderately to coarsely serrate, apex acute or acuminate to short-attenuate, abaxial surfaces white (gray-green in shade), with hooked prickles on largest veins, short-velutinous to tomentose, eglandular, rarely sparsely sessile-glandular along midveins.

Inflorescences

1-flowered.

terminal, sometimes also axillary, 10–60(–100)-flowered, thyrsiform, projected well beyond subtending leaves.

Pedicels

moderately hairy, eglandular or sparsely stipitate-glandular.

prickles moderate to dense, hooked to retrorse or erect, densely hairy, eglandular or sparsely to moderately sessile-glandular.

Flowers

bisexual;

petals white, obovate, (15–)20–25 mm;

filaments filiform;

ovaries glabrous, styles clavate, villous.

bisexual;

petals white to pink, obovate or elliptic to orbiculate, 10–15 mm;

filaments filiform;

ovaries apically hairy.

Fruits

deep red, hemispheric, to 1 cm;

drupelets 10–30, coherent, separating from torus.

black, globose to subcylindric, 1–2 cm;

drupelets 15–40(–50), strongly coherent, separating with torus attached.

2n

= 28, 48.

Rubus bartonianus

Rubus bifrons

Phenology Flowering Mar–May. Flowering (Apr–)May–Aug(–Sep).
Habitat Dry, rocky slopes Woodland edges, dry or mixed woods, open areas, often disturbed, roadsides, moist soil
Elevation 300–400 m [1000–1300 ft] 0–1200(–1800) m [0–3900(–5900) ft]
Distribution
from FNA
ID; OR
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AK; AL; AR; AZ; CA; CO; CT; DC; GA; ID; IL; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; MO; MS; MT; NC; NJ; NM; NV; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SC; TN; TX; UT; VA; WA; BC; ON; Europe [Introduced in North America]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Of conservation concern.

Rubus bartonianus is distinguished from the other flowering raspberries within its geographic range by its erect, unarmed stems, relatively small, simple leaves with acute to obtuse lobes, deeply cordate bases, sparsely hairy or glabrous abaxial surfaces, relatively large flowers with white petals, and densely long-hairy, clavate styles. The leaves superficially resemble those of Acer glabrum or some species of Ribes.

Rubus bartonianus is most similar to R. neomexicanus but especially R. deliciosus. The species is known only from the Snake River Canyon of Idaho and Oregon.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Rubus bifrons lacks the strongly pruinose stems of the related R. ulmifolius and has usually much larger leaves. The species also often has much broader inflorescences than R. ulmifolius or the related R. vestitus. It is less densely glandular and has longer and more open inflorescences than R. pascuus, and unlike the latter it has spreading, not erect, primocane leaves. Rubus bifrons also lacks the stipitate-glandular hairs and nearly round primocane terminal leaflets of R. vestitus; seedlings of R. bifrons can be densely stipitate-glandular.

L. H. Bailey (1941–1945), M. L. Fernald (1950), Y. Heslop-Harrison (1968), and H. A. Gleason and A. Cronquist (1991) distinguished between Rubus bifrons and another species (referred to as either R. discolor or R. procerus P. J. Müller ex Boulay, both often considered synonyms of R. armeniacus), based on stem shape and indument, prickle shape and angle, leaf shape and margins, inflorescence shape, and petal color. Plants in North America identified as either R. bifrons or the other species can vary broadly in any of these characters, even within individual stems, making it extremely difficult or impossible to distinguish between these species in the flora area. Recent research addressing the genetics or species distinctiveness in this complex in Europe (J. Kollmann et al. 2000) and Australia (K. J. Evans et al. 2007) did not sample plants from North America, and recent work within the flora area (L. V. Clark et al. 2013) addressed this complex only in California, Oregon, and Washington. Until a much-needed genetic study is performed that includes a broad selection of plants of ser. Discolores from throughout North America, Europe, and elsewhere, the precise identities of all of our material in this complex will be elusive. With this degree of uncertainty, a conservative approach is taken here, which is consistent with the treatment herein of the native blackberries. The results of more comprehensive DNA research may show that a different name than R. bifrons is to be used in the flora area. The name R. discolor often has been misattributed as a synonym of R. armeniacus; it is a synonym of R. ulmifolius (H. E. Weber 1985).

In the flora area, Rubus bifrons is most abundant from northern California northward to British Columbia, where it can grow in great density over large areas, often to the exclusion of all other vegetation (for example, K. Williams et al. 2006). There are reports of R. bifrons (as R. armeniacus or R. procerus) hybridizing with R. ursinus (T. S. Mallah 1954; L. V. Clark and M. Jasieniuk 2012; B. Sutherland and L. Alice, unpubl.) and R. laciniatus (R. K. Bammi and H. P. Olmo 1966).

Rubus thyrsoideus Wimmer is an illegitimate name that applies here.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 9, p. 36. FNA vol. 9, p. 36.
Parent taxa Rosaceae > subfam. Rosoideae > tribe Rubeae > Rubus Rosaceae > subfam. Rosoideae > tribe Rubeae > Rubus
Sibling taxa
R. allegheniensis, R. arcticus, R. bifrons, R. caesius, R. canadensis, R. chamaemorus, R. cuneifolius, R. deliciosus, R. flagellaris, R. glaucifolius, R. hispidus, R. idaeus, R. illecebrosus, R. laciniatus, R. lasiococcus, R. leucodermis, R. neomexicanus, R. nivalis, R. niveus, R. nutkanus, R. occidentalis, R. odoratus, R. parviflorus, R. parvifolius, R. pascuus, R. pedatus, R. pensilvanicus, R. phoenicolasius, R. pubescens, R. repens, R. saxatilis, R. setosus, R. spectabilis, R. trivialis, R. ulmifolius, R. ursinus, R. vestitus
R. allegheniensis, R. arcticus, R. bartonianus, R. caesius, R. canadensis, R. chamaemorus, R. cuneifolius, R. deliciosus, R. flagellaris, R. glaucifolius, R. hispidus, R. idaeus, R. illecebrosus, R. laciniatus, R. lasiococcus, R. leucodermis, R. neomexicanus, R. nivalis, R. niveus, R. nutkanus, R. occidentalis, R. odoratus, R. parviflorus, R. parvifolius, R. pascuus, R. pedatus, R. pensilvanicus, R. phoenicolasius, R. pubescens, R. repens, R. saxatilis, R. setosus, R. spectabilis, R. trivialis, R. ulmifolius, R. ursinus, R. vestitus
Synonyms R. armeniacus, R. linkianus
Name authority M. Peck: Rhodora 36: 267. (1934) Vest: Steyermärk. Z. 3: 163. (1821)
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