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cultivated radish, garden radish, jointed charlock, radish, wild radish

Habit Annuals or biennials, roots often fleshy in cultivated forms; often sparsely scabrous or hispid, sometimes glabrous.
Stems

often simple from base, (1–)4–13 dm.

Basal leaves

petiole 1–30 cm;

blade oblong, obovate, oblanceolate, or spatulate in outline, lyrate or pinnatisect, sometimes undivided, 2–60 cm × 10–200 mm, margins dentate, apex obtuse or acute;

lobes 1–12 each side, oblong or ovate, to 10 cm × 50 mm.

Cauline leaves

(distal) subsessile;

blade often undivided.

Flowers

sepals 5.5–10 × 1–2 mm, glabrous or sparsely pubescent;

petals usually purple or pink, sometimes white (veins often darker), 15–25 × 3–8 mm, claw to 14 mm;

filaments 5–12 mm;

anthers 1.5–2 mm.

Fruiting pedicels

spreading to ascending, 5–40 mm.

Fruits

usually fusiform or lanceolate, sometimes ovoid or cylindrical;

valvular segment 1–3.5 mm;

terminal segment (1–)3–15(–25) cm × (5–)7–13(–15) mm, smooth or, rarely, slightly constricted between seeds, not ribbed, beak narrowly to broadly conical to linear;

style 10–40 mm.

Seeds

globose or ovoid, 2.5–4 mm diam.

2n

= 18.

Raphanus sativus

Phenology Flowering May–Jul.
Habitat Roadsides, disturbed areas, waste places, cultivated fields, gardens, orchards
Elevation 0-1000 m [0-3300 ft]
Distribution
from FNA
AK; AL; AR; AZ; CA; CO; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IA; ID; IL; IN; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MO; MS; MT; NC; ND; NE; NH; NJ; NM; NV; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SC; SD; TN; TX; UT; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; WY; BC; MB; NB; NL; NS; ON; PE; QC; SK; Europe; Asia [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Mexico, Bermuda, South America, Africa, Atlantic Islands, Australia]
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[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Raphanus sativus is an important crop plant that is cultivated and/or weedy in most temperate regions worldwide. It is unknown as a wild plant, but suggested to be derived from R. raphanistrum subsp. landra, which is endemic to the Mediterranean region (L. J. Lewis-Jones et al. 1982).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 7, p. 439.
Parent taxa Brassicaceae > tribe Brassiceae > Raphanus
Sibling taxa
R. raphanistrum
Name authority Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 669. (1753)
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