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western polypody, western polypody fern

Stems

occasionally whitish pruinose, slender to moderately stout, to 6 mm diam., acrid- to sweet-tasting: scales concolored, brown or slightly mottled, often darker near point of attachment, lanceolate, usually symmetric, margins entire to denticulate.

Leaves

to 35 cm.

Petiole

slender, to 1.5 mm diam.

Blade

oblong to lanceolate-ovate, occasionally deltate, pinnatifid, usually widest at or near middle, to 7 cm wide, herbaceous to somewhat leathery;

rachis sparsely scaly to glabrescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially;

scales linear-lanceolate, usually less than 6 cells wide.

Segments

oblong to linear-lanceolate, less than 12 mm wide;

margins entire to crenulate or obscurely serrate;

apex obtuse to acute;

midrib glabrous adaxially.

Sori

midway between margin and midrib, less than 3 mm diam., oval when immature.

Spores

more than 58 µm, rugose to verrucose or tuberculate, surface projections commonly less than 3 µm.

Venation

free.

Sporangiasters

absent.

2n

= 148.

Polypodium hesperium

Phenology Sporulating summer–fall.
Habitat Cracks and ledges on cliffs, on a variety of noncalcareous substrates, rarely on limestone
Elevation 300–3500 m. [1000–11500 ft.]
Discussion

Using morphologic and chromosomal data, F. A. Lang (1971) proposed that Polypodium hesperium originated through allotetraploidy involving P. glycyrrhiza and P. amorphum, a hypothesis recently supported by electrophoretic studies (C. H. Haufler, M. D. Windham, and E. W. Rabe, unpublished). Variations in spore surface morphology and banding patterns observed in isozyme studies indicate that P. hesperium may have originated more than once from different individuals of the same species. Some collections of P. hesperium can be mistaken for P. glycyrrhiza, but the latter species is easily distinguished by its pubescent rachises, linear blade scales, and smaller spores (less than 58 µm). Although P. amorphum has sporangiasters and P. hesperium lacks them, misshapen sporangia in P. hesperium can mimic these distinctive soral structures. Therefore, it is often necessary to use a combination of soral, stem scale, and blade scale features (discussed in the key) to separate P. hesperium from P. amorphum. Hybridization occurs between P. hesperium and each of its progenitor diploids to form triploid individuals with misshapen spores (F. A. Lang 1971). Rare, sterile, tetraploid hybrids with P. saximontanum have also been detected (M. D. Windham, unpublished).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Distribution
from FNA
AZ; CA; CO; ID; MT; NM; NV; OR; UT; WA; BC; Mexico in Chihuahua; Baja California
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Parent taxa Polypodiaceae > Polypodium
Sibling taxa
P. amorphum, P. appalachianum, P. californicum, P. calirhiza, P. glycyrrhiza, P. saximontanum, P. scouleri, P. sibiricum, P. triseriale, P. virginianum
Synonyms P. prolongilobum, P. vulgare subsp. columbianum, P. vulgare var. columbianum, P. vulgare var. hesperium
Name authority Maxon: Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 13: 200. (1900)
Source Flora of North America vol. 2.
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