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wing-stem camphorweed


Habit Perennials, 50–200 cm; fibrous-rooted. Annuals, perennials, subshrubs, shrubs, or trees (usually fetid-aromatic), (20–)50–200(–500) cm; taprooted or fibrous-rooted.

minutely hirtellous to strigillose and sessile-glandular (winged by decurrent leaf bases).

erect, simple or branched, seldom winged (see P. sagittalis), usually puberulent to tomentose and stipitate- or sessile-glandular, sometimes glabrous.



blades usually lanceolate to lance-elliptic (proximal sometimes spatulate or oblanceolate), mostly 5–15 × 1–3(–4) cm, margins shallowly and closely toothed, faces minutely hirtellous to strigillose and sessile-glandular.

cauline, alternate; petiolate or sessile;

blades mostly elliptic, lanceolate, oblanceolate, oblong, obovate, or ovate, bases clasping or not, margins entire or dentate, abaxial faces mostly arachnose, puberulent, sericeous, strigose, or villous and/or stipitate- or sessile-glandular, adaxial similar or glabrate or glabrous.


hemispheric to cupulate, 4–7 × 8–10 mm.

mostly campanulate, cupulate, cylindric, hemispheric, or turbinate, 3–10(–12) mm diam.


flat, epaleate.

Peripheral (pistillate) florets

in 3–10+ series, fertile;

corollas creamy white, whitish, yellowish, pinkish, lavender, purplish, or rosy.

Inner (functionally staminate) florets


corollas creamy white, whitish, yellowish, pinkish, lavender, purplish, or rosy, lobes (4–)5.


white or rose-purple.


greenish to cream, ± stipitate-glandular (outer oval-oblong to linear-attenuate).

persistent or falling, in 3–6+ series, mostly ovate to lanceolate or linear, unequal.


in corymbiform arrays.

disciform, in corymbiform or paniculiform arrays (flat-topped or ± elongate).


oblong-cylindric, ribs 4–8, faces strigillose and/or minutely sessile-glandular or glabrous (in the flora, only P. sericea);

pappi persistent or tardily falling, of distinct or basally connate, barbellate bristles in 1 series.


persistent, bristles distinct.


= 10.


= 20.

Pluchea sagittalis


Phenology Flowering Jul–Aug.
Habitat Moist or wet, open habitats, ballast deposit areas
Elevation 0–10 m (0–0 ft)
from FNA
AL; FL; South America; West Indies [Introduced in North America]
[BONAP county map]
from USDA
North America; South America; Tropical and warm-temperate regions; West Indies; se Asia; Africa; Australia; Pacific Islands
[BONAP county map]

Pluchea sagittalis is adventive, probably a waif; it was collected as a ballast weed by C. Mohr near Mobile (1891, 1894, 1896) and by A. H. Curtiss near Pensacola (1886, 1901).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Species 40–60 (9 in the flora).

As currently treated, Pluchea is a heterogeneous group of species, variable in habit (trees and shrubs to herbs) and foliar, floral, and fruit morphology. The American, primarily herbaceous, species are divided into groups (G. L. Nesom 1989): sect. Pluchea, sect. Amplectifolium G. L. Nesom, and sect. Pterocaulis G. L. Nesom. Among the woody species, segregate genera have been recognized (Tessaria Ruiz & Pavón, Berthelotia de Candolle, Eremohylema A. Nelson); boundaries among segregates have not been clearly drawn.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

1. Shrubs or trees; leaves and stems sericeous, not glandular
P. sericea
1. Annuals, perennials, or subshrubs; leaves and stems not sericeous, usually glandular
→ 2
2. Stems (winged by decurrent leaf bases)
P. sagittalis
2. Stems (not winged, leaf bases sometimes clasping, not decurrent)
→ 3
3. Leaves petiolate, blades mostly elliptic, lanceolate, oblanceolate, oblong-elliptic, oblong-ovate, or ovate (bases not clasping)
→ 4
3. Leaves sessile, blades mostly elliptic, lanceolate, oblong, or ovate (bases clasping to subclasping)
→ 6
4. Subshrubs, 100–400 cm; leaf margins entire or denticulate (teeth callous-tipped).
P. carolinensis
4. Annuals or perennials, 50–200+ cm; leaf margins serrate
→ 5
5. Involucres 4–6 × 3–4 mm; phyllaries usually cream, sometimes purplish, usually minutely sessile-glandular, sometimes glabrate (the outermost puberulent); stems usually closely arachose (hairs appressed); arrays of heads paniculiform (of rounded-convex corymbiform clusters terminating branches from distal nodes, arrays usually resulting from strongly ascending, bracteate branches, the central axis longest, first to flower, and, rarely, the only component of an array); leaves petiolate; inland, non-saline habitats
P. camphorata
5. Involucres 5–6 × 4–8(–10) mm; phyllaries usually cream, sometimes purplish, minutely sessile-glandular (outer also puberulent, hairs multicellular, viscid), sometimes glabrate; stems not arachnose; arrays of heads corymbiform (flat-topped to rounded, often layered, sometimes incorporating relatively long, leafy, lateral branches, clusters of heads terminal on leafy branches, some lateral branches nearly equaling or surpassing central portion); leaves sessile or petiolate; primarily coastal salt marshes, also inland habitats west of Mississippi River
P. odorata
6. Leaves mostly 8–20 × 3–7 cm; involucres cylindro-campanulate, 9–12 mm (mid phyllaries 2.5–3 mm wide); phyllaries and corollas creamy white.
P. longifolia
6. Leaves mostly 3–10 × 1–3 cm; involucres turbinate-campanulate to cylindro-campanulate, 5–8 mm (mid phyllaries 1–1.5 mm wide); phyllaries and corollas yellowish or creamy white to lavender, pale pink, pinkish, purplish, or rosy
→ 7
7. Stems and leaves (slightly succulent, shiny) glandular, otherwise mostly glabrous; involucres 5–6 × 4–5 mm; phyllaries and corollas pink to lavender or cream or pinkish to rosy
P. yucatanensis
7. Stems and leaves at least puberulent or arachnose as well as glandular; involucres 4–10 × 5–12 mm; phyllaries and corollas rose-pink to purplish, rose-purple, greenish, cream, or creamy white to yellowish, or pale pink
→ 8
8. Phyllaries and corollas usually creamy white, sometimes cream, greenish, rose-purple, purplish, pale pink, or yellowish; involucres 5–10 × 6–9(–12) mm (bases rounded to impressed); phyllaries thinly arachnose and sessile-glandular
P. foetida
8. Phyllaries and corollas rose-pink to purplish; involucres 4–6 × 5–9 mm (bases obtuse to barely acute); phyllaries usually arachnose (sometimes also with viscid hairs)
P. baccharis
Source FNA vol. 19, p. 480. FNA vol. 19, p. 478. Author: Guy L. Nesom.
Parent taxa Asteraceae > tribe Plucheeae > Pluchea Asteraceae > tribe Plucheeae
Sibling taxa
P. baccharis, P. camphorata, P. carolinensis, P. foetida, P. longifolia, P. odorata, P. sericea, P. yucatanensis
Subordinate taxa
P. baccharis, P. camphorata, P. carolinensis, P. foetida, P. longifolia, P. odorata, P. sagittalis, P. sericea, P. yucatanensis
Synonyms Conyza sagittalis, P. quitoc, P. suaveolens
Name authority (Lamarck) Cabrera: Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 3: 36. (1949) Cassini: Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1817: 31. (1817)
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