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Oregon apple, squaw apple, wild crab apple

Habit Trees or shrubs; armed or unarmed.
Leaves

crowded toward tips of short shoots;

stipules minute;

blade 4–12 mm wide.

alternate, simple or pinnately compound;

stipules persistent, deciduous, or absent, free, sometimes adnate or short-adnate to petiole (and base of blade in Peraphyllum );

venation pinnate.

Pedicels

1–2 cm.

Flowers

sepals 2.5–5 mm, adaxially pubescent;

petals 4–8 mm.

perianth and androecium epigynous (perigynous in Vauquelinia );

epicalyx bractlets absent;

hypanthium hemispheric, campanulate, cupulate, funnelform, or obconic, sometimes urceolate, cylindric, or saucer-shaped;

torus absent (present in Vauquelinia );

carpels 1–5, ± connate or distinct, adnate more than 1/2 to hypanthium (free in Vauquelinia , [Dichotomanthes ]), styles terminal, sometimes subterminal or lateral, distinct or ± connate basally;

ovules (1 or)2(or 3), basal and collateral, or 2–20+, marginal and biseriate (with funicular obturators).

Fruits

pomes or woody capsules surrounded by hypanthium and splitting into 5 follicles (coccetum) (Vauquelinia);

styles persistent or deciduous, not elongate.

2n

= 34.

Peraphyllum ramosissimum

Rosaceae tribe Maleae

Phenology Flowering spring; fruiting summer.
Habitat Dry hillsides, mostly in full sun, pinyon pine-juniper, ponderosa pine, oak-sagebrush, and other communities
Elevation 500–3000 m [1600–9800 ft]
Discussion

Peraphyllum ramosissimum is distinctive for its narrow leaves, small flowers, and yellow-orange pomes.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Genera 29, species 550–840+ (18 genera, 270 species, including 18 hybrids, in the flora).

The family name Malaceae Small (1903) is a conserved name, with Malus as its type genus. In contrast, the family name Pyraceae Vest (1818), with Pyrus as its type, is not a conserved name. Although Maleae was published later than Pyreae (1869), a Rosaceae tribe that includes both Malus and Pyrus is to be called Maleae (see Melbourne Code, Article 19.5, Example 5).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Distribution
from FNA
CA; CO; ID; NM; NV; OR; UT
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
HI; North America; Mexico; Central America; Eurasia; Africa; Atlantic Islands (Madeira) [Introduced in temperate southern hemisphere]
Parent taxa Rosaceae > subfam. Amygdaloideae > tribe Maleae > Peraphyllum Rosaceae > subfam. Amygdaloideae
Subordinate taxa
Amelanchier, Aronia, Chaenomeles, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Cydonia, Eriobotrya, Heteromeles, Malacomeles, Malus, Mespilus, Peraphyllum, Photinia, Pyracantha, Pyrus, Sorbus, Vauquelinia
Key
1.Leaf margins usually horny; carpels free; flowers: perianth and androecium perigynous; fruits woody capsules surrounded by a hypanthium, splitting into 5 follicles; seeds wingedVauquelinia
1.Leaf margins not horny; carpels ± adnate to hypanthium; flowers: perianth and androecium epigynous; fruits pomes; seeds not winged or pyrenes.→ 2
2.Fruiting carpels woody or bony.→ 3
3.Leaf margins entire; stipules short-adnate to petiole; stems unarmed; sepals erect in flower; petal base clawed.Cotoneaster
3.Leaf margins ± serrate, crenate, serrulate, or crenulate, sometimes entire; stipules free; stems usually armed (sometimes with compound thorns), sometimes unarmed; sepals spreading in flower; petal base slightly or barely clawed.→ 4
4.Leaves persistent or late-deciduous; flowers 3–10(–12) mm diam., hypanthium campanulate; pomes 3–8 mm diam.Pyracantha
4.Leaves deciduous (sometimes winter-persistent in south); flowers 8–35 mm diam., hypanthium ± obconic; pomes 6–40 mm diam.→ 5
5.Flowers 8–25 mm diam., stamens 5–20 (rarely 30–45); pomes yellow to red or purplish to black mature, 6–20(–25) mm diam.; pyrenes 1–5; short shoots present; inflorescences 1–50-flowered, domed panicles, corymbose, or flowers solitary.Crataegus
5.Flowers 25–35 mm diam., stamens 25–35(–40); pomes brownish, 15–40 mm diam.; pyrenes 5; short shoots rare or absent; inflorescences 1(or 2) floweredMespilus
2.Fruiting carpels cartilaginous.→ 6
6.Stems armed (thorns present).>→ 7
7.Stipules persistent; pedicels short or absent; styles basally connate 1/3 of length; pome flesh without stones; stamens 40–60; fruiting sepals deciduous.Chaenomeles
7.Stipules usually deciduous or caducous; pedicels present; styles distinct or basally connate; pome flesh with stones (at least near carpels and epidermis); stamens 15–50; fruiting sepals persistent or deciduous.→ 8
8.Pome flesh with stone cells adjacent to carpels and epidermis; styles basally connate.Malus
8.Pome flesh with abundant stone or grit cells; styles distinct.Pyrus
6.Stems unarmed.→ 9
9.Inflorescences: flowers solitary or 1–5-flowered, corymbs or cymes.→ 10
10.Pomes yellow; ovules (seeds) many; inflorescences: flowers solitary.→ 11
11.Leaf margins entire, abaxial surfaces densely villous; buds ovoid, apices obtuse or acuminate, tomentose; young branches tomentose, glabrescent; stipules caducous; flowers 40–50 mm diam., petals white or light pink, suborbiculate, ovate, or obovate, stamens equal to or slightly longer than petals; pomes pyriform or subglobose, 30–50 mm.Cydonia
10.Pomes pink, yellow-orange, purple, purplish or bluish black, brownish, or nearly black; ovules (seeds) (1 or)2; inflorescences 1–5-flowered, cymes or corymbs.→ 12
12.Pomes yellow-orange; stipules adnate to petiole and base of blade; petioles short or absent; leaf blades elliptic to oblanceolate or linear.Peraphyllum
12.Pomes pink, bluish or purplish black, purple, brownish, or nearly black; stipules free; petioles present; leaf blades elliptic, elliptic-oblong, or oblong-ovate to orbiculate.→ 13
13.Leaves leathery, drought-deciduous or persistent; sepals nearly orbiculate (inner broadly deltate), petals round or kidney-shaped; carpels barely connate or distinct, styles lateral; pomes translucent, vivid pink, drying purplish black.Malacomeles
13.Leaves membranous to coriaceous (not leathery), deciduous; sepals triangular to lanceolate, petals linear to orbiculate; carpels connate, styles terminal; pomes bluish or purplish to nearly black, pinkish or maroon-purple, dark purple-blue, or brownish.Amelanchier
9.Inflorescences (4 or)5–400+-flowered, panicles, sometimes racemes, corymbs, or subumbellate.→ 14
14.Leaves persistent, leathery; carpels basally adnate to hypanthium.→ 15
15.Leaf margins flat; flowers 15–20 mm diam.; pedicels short or nearly absent; hypanthia usually tomentose; stamens 20; carpels connate, styles (2–)5; pomes soft apricot yellow, 20–30 mm (diam.).Eriobotrya
15.Leaf margins revolute; flowers 10 mm diam.; pedicels present; hypanthia glabrous or weakly floccose; stamens 10; carpels distinct, styles 2 or 3; pomes usually bright red, sometimes yellow, 5–10 mmHeteromeles
14.Leaves usually deciduous, sometimes semipersistent or persistent (then margin entire), membranous to ± leathery; carpels adnate to all or 1/3–1/2 of hypanthium.→ 16
16.Pome flesh with stones or sclereids.→ 17
17.Inflorescences terminal, 6–400+-flowered flat-topped or rounded panicles; flowers opening after leaf expansion, 5–17 mm diam.; sepals erect or ascending; leaves pinnately divided, sometimes simple or lobed.Sorbus
17.Inflorescences terminal on short shoots, 4–9-flowered racemes or simple corymbs, umbel-like; flowers developing with or before leaves, 15–45 mm diam.; sepals reflexed; leaves simple.Pyrus
16.Pome flesh without stones.→ 18
18.Stipules adnate to petiole, persistentAronia
18.Stipules free, caducous or deciduous.→ 19
19.Leaves persistent or deciduous; inflorescences corymbose or subumbellate; pomes red or black.Photinia
19.Leaves deciduous; inflorescences racemes; pomes bluish or purplish to nearly black, pinkish or maroon-purple, dark purple-blue, or brownishAmelanchier
Synonyms family rosaceae tribe Pyreae
Name authority Nuttall: in J. Torrey and A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 474. (1840) Small: Man. S.E. Fl., 632. (1933)
Source Flora of North America vol. 9, p. 662. Flora of North America vol. 9, p. 424.
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