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Carolina bristle-mallow, modiola


flowering apices often ascending, branched, usually 0.2–0.5 m, often rooting at nodes.


stipules 3–4 × 1.5–3 mm;

petiole length 1–2 times blade;

blade 1.5–4 × 1.5–4 cm.


usually shorter than subtending petioles, hairy;

involucellar bractlets lanceolate, 4–5 mm.


calyx 5–7 mm, hairy, hairs simple, 1–2 mm;

corolla erect, 6–8 mm;

staminal column yellowish;

anthers crowded at apex;

stigmas equaling number of locules.


1.5 mm.


drying black, 5–6 mm, apical spines 1.5–3 mm.


= 18.

Modiola caroliniana

Phenology Flowering Mar–Nov.
Habitat Disturbed, usually moist habitats, shores of ponds and reservoirs, low sandy areas, lawns, roadsides
Elevation 0–400 m (0–1300 ft)
from FNA
AL; AR; AZ; CA; DE; FL; GA; KY; LA; MA; MS; NC; OK; OR; PA; SC; TN; TX; VA; HI; Central America; South America [Introduced in North America; introduced also in Mexico]
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Modiola caroliniana is somewhat weedy but not a serious agricultural weed. It has been reported in Delaware, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania as a waif but doubtfully persists that far north. It is well established in the southeastern United States and is rather common as a lawn weed in some locations and as a garden weed in California. It probably came from southern South America in wool or cotton. Its closest relative, Modiolastrum K. Schumann, is known from southern South America.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 6, p. 304.
Parent taxa Malvaceae > subfam. Malvoideae > Modiola
Synonyms Malva caroliniana, M. prostrata, M. reptans, M. urticifolia
Name authority (Linnaeus) G. Don: Gen. Hist. 1: 466. (1831)
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