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Graham's manihot, Graham's manihot or cassava, hardy tapioca

Habit Shrubs or trees, 2–6[–7] m.

not thickened.


erect, angled when young;

nodes not swollen;

leaf and stipule scars not elevated.



stipules linear, remotely serrate;

petiole 5–33 cm;

blade basally attached, 5–13-lobed, median and adjacent lobes with pair of weakly defined rounded secondary lobes distal to middle, lateral lobes without secondary lobes, median lobe 5–24 cm, margins neither thickened nor revolute, entire, apex acuminate, surface glabrous, abaxial smooth.


axillary, panicles, to 30 cm.


staminate 4–10 mm; pistillate 10–40 mm in fruit, straight.

Staminate flowers

calyx campanulate, 10–15 mm, lobes erect or spreading;

stamens 10.


1.8 cm, smooth, not winged.


oblong, 10–12 mm.

Manihot grahamii

Phenology Flowering Apr–Aug; fruiting Jun–Sep.
Habitat Disturbed areas, spreading from cultivation.
Elevation 0–600 m. (0–2000 ft.)
from FNA
AL; AR; FL; GA; LA; MS; TX; South America [Introduced in North America]
[BONAP county map]

Manihot grahamii is native to northern Argentina, southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, and is sometimes cultivated for its distinctive, attractive foliage. The flowers are relatively inconspicuous, but are much-visited by bees. This is the most cold-tolerant Manihot species; above-ground stems survive light frosts and if severe cold kills the aerial shoot system outright, new stems can regenerate from underground parts. It survives well and self-sows in garden settings as far north as tidewater Virginia; northern limits for the persistence of plants escaping from cultivation have yet to be established. In addition to characteristics noted in the key, herbarium specimens frequently exhibit contracted petiole bases.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 12, p. 195.
Parent taxa Euphorbiaceae > Manihot
Sibling taxa
M. angustiloba, M. davisiae, M. esculenta, M. subspicata, M. walkerae
Name authority Hooker: Icon. Pl. 6: plate 530. (1843) — (as grahami)
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