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large-flower primrose-willow, Uruguayan primrose-willow

anglestem primrose-willow, anglestem waterprimrose

Habit Herbs, subshrubs, or emergent aquatics, rooting at lower nodes, sometimes woody at base, white pneumatophores 8–10 cm often on submerged stems. Herbs, perennial or (robust) annual, or shrubs, often with woody base, when aquatic, forming white pneumatophores from nodes.

erect or ascending to creeping or floating, terete or sometimes angled distally, 20–300(–450) cm, usually densely branched, sometimes simple, glabrous if floating, or densely villous and viscid throughout, or rarely just on inflorescence.

usually erect or strongly ascending, rarely floating or creeping, terete to somewhat angled on young branches, 30–250 cm, well branched to sparsely branched or simple, usually villous, often also strigillose, rarely glabrous, with raised lines decurrent from leaf axils.


stipules (rarely in clusters of 3), ovate-deltate, 0.6–2 × 0.6–1.5 mm, fleshy, apex subacute, often mucronate;

petiole 0.1–1.1 cm;

blade usually lanceolate to (narrowly) elliptic or oblanceolate, rarely narrowly obovate, (1.7–)3.1–8(–10.5) × 0.5–2(–2.5) cm, chartaceous, viscid, base cuneate or attenuate, margins entire, apex obtuse or acute, always glandular-mucronate, surfaces densely villous, sometimes less dense adaxially, distal leaves more pubescent than proximal ones;

bracts scarcely reduced.

stipules narrowly deltate, 0.1–0.2 × 0.1–0.2 mm;

petiole 0.2–3.5 cm;

blade broadly lanceolate, 3.5–18 × 1–4 cm, base narrowly cuneate, margins subentire, apex acuminate, surfaces hirsute or villous;

bracts slightly to much reduced.


on emergent stems sometimes in leafy racemes, flowers solitary in leaf axils;

bracteoles narrowly to broadly obovate, 1–1.2 × 0.7–0.8 mm, succulent, apex acute, oppositely attached at ovary base.

leafy racemes, flowers solitary in axils;

bracteoles often absent, when present, narrowly deltate, 2–3 × 1.2–2.4 mm, attached near ovary base.


sepals usually deciduous, not persistent on capsule, lanceolate, 6–12(–16) × 2–4 mm, chartaceous, apex acute, surfaces densely villous;

petals yellow, fan-shaped, (12–)16–20(–26) × 11–16(–21) mm, apex rounded, usually emarginate, rarely mucronate;

stamens 10(or 12), in 2 unequal series, yellow, filaments reflexed, shorter ones (2.8–)3.8–5.3 mm, longer ones (3.7–)6–6.5 mm, anthers oblong, 1–2.5 × (0.6–)0.8–1.2 mm;

ovary subcylindric, terete, 6–12 × 1.5–2.5 mm, apex thickened, densely villous;

nectary disc slightly raised on ovary apex, yellow, 1.5–2.5 mm diam., lobed, ringed with villous hairs;

style yellow, 4.7–6.7(–8) mm, glabrous or sparsely pubescent near base, stigma subcapitate-globose, 1–1.3 × 1.6–2.5 mm, usually exserted beyond anthers.

sepals ovate-deltate, 5.5–11 × 1.5–3 mm, margins entire, apex acuminate, surfaces villous;

petals orange-yellow, obovate, 5–11 × 4–8 mm;

stamens (8 or)10 or 12(or 14), in 2 unequal series, longer filaments 2.5–4.5 mm, shorter ones 1.5–2.5 mm, anthers oblong, 1.2–1.6 × 0.7–1 mm, extrorse;

ovary cylindric, subterete, 10–16 × 2–3 mm, glabrate to strigillose or villous;

nectary disc slightly elevated at ovary apex, 2–4 mm diam., lobed, depressed, surrounded by densely matted white hairs;

style 3–4.5 mm, glabrous, stigma capitate-globose, 1–1.5 × 2–2.5 mm, ± exserted beyond anthers.


subcylindric, terete, straight or curved, (11–)14–25 × 3–4 mm, with thick woody walls, irregularly and tardily dehiscent, villous-viscid, pedicel 13–25(–27) mm.

obscurely [4 or]5 or 6[or 7]-angled or subterete, straight or curved, 15–50 × 2.5–4 mm, relatively thin-walled, seeds visible as bumps, tardily and irregularly loculicidal, villous, pedicel 2–20 mm.


embedded in wedge-shaped piece of endocarp, 0.8–1 × 0.8–0.9 mm.

in 1 row per locule, horizontal and loosely embedded in an easily detached horseshoe-shaped segment of firm endocarp, pale brown, obovoid, 1–1.2 mm, shiny, finely pitted, raphe much narrower than seed body.


= 48.

= 32, 48.

Ludwigia grandiflora

Ludwigia leptocarpa

Phenology Flowering summer. Flowering summer.
Habitat Wet places, along slow-moving rivers, streams, canals, ditches, often growing into main channel as aquatic weed. Wet places, mainly along coastal areas, especially ditches, banks near brackish water.
Elevation 0–200[–1200] m. (0–700[–3900] ft.) 0–200[–1300] m. (0–700[–4300] ft.)
from FNA
AL; AR; CA; FL; GA; KY; LA; MO; MS; NC; NJ; NY; OK; OR; PA; SC; TN; TX; VA; WA; WV; Central America (Guatemala); South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay)
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AL; AR; DE; FL; GA; IL; IN; KY; LA; MD; MO; MS; NC; OH; OK; PA; SC; TN; TX; VA; WV; Central America; South America; Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz); West Indies (Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico); Africa; Indian Ocean Islands (Madagascar)
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]

Ludwigia grandiflora occurs in two disjunct areas: the southeastern United States on the coastal plain of southern South Carolina, Georgia, northern Florida, Louisiana, west to central Texas, and recently in southern California (P. C. Hoch and B. J. Grewell 2012) and Oregon; and central South America from south of the Amazon basin of Brazil and Bolivia where it is very scattered, to Uruguay, northeastern Argentina, and Paraguay where it is very frequent. It has been collected three times in Guatemala and twice in Missouri, although it is not clearly established in either region. It usually grows below 200 m elevation, but in Guatemala and in Santa Catarina, Brazil (Smith & , MO), it has been collected as high as Klein 133831200 m elevation. Populations of L. grandiflora in the United States are fairly variable, although not as much as in South American populations.

As noted by Greuter and Burdet, the publication of Jussiaea grandiflora Ruíz & Pavon, which was a synonym of J. peruviana, occurred in 1830, not in 1802 as reported (P. A. Munz 1942; P. H. Raven 1963[1964]). Therefore, J. grandiflora Michaux in 1803 is legitimate, and J. grandiflora Ruíz & Pavon is an illegitimate homonym.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Ludwigia leptocarpa is a globally widespread and morphologically variable species; in the flora area it is distributed widely in wet areas of the southeastern United States. Both tetraploid and hexaploid plants are known, but it is not clear if or how ploidy level is related to the considerable morphological variation, especially in pubescence type and pattern.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 10. FNA vol. 10.
Parent taxa Onagraceae > subfam. Ludwigioideae > Ludwigia > sect. Jussiaea Onagraceae > subfam. Ludwigioideae > Ludwigia > sect. Seminudae
Sibling taxa
L. alata, L. alternifolia, L. arcuata, L. bonariensis, L. brevipes, L. curtissii, L. decurrens, L. erecta, L. glandulosa, L. hexapetala, L. hirtella, L. lanceolata, L. leptocarpa, L. linearis, L. linifolia, L. maritima, L. microcarpa, L. octovalvis, L. palustris, L. peploides, L. peruviana, L. pilosa, L. polycarpa, L. ravenii, L. repens, L. simpsonii, L. spathulata, L. sphaerocarpa, L. suffruticosa, L. virgata
L. alata, L. alternifolia, L. arcuata, L. bonariensis, L. brevipes, L. curtissii, L. decurrens, L. erecta, L. glandulosa, L. grandiflora, L. hexapetala, L. hirtella, L. lanceolata, L. linearis, L. linifolia, L. maritima, L. microcarpa, L. octovalvis, L. palustris, L. peploides, L. peruviana, L. pilosa, L. polycarpa, L. ravenii, L. repens, L. simpsonii, L. spathulata, L. sphaerocarpa, L. suffruticosa, L. virgata
Synonyms Jussiaea grandiflora, J. repens var. grandiflora, J. repens var. hispida, J. stenophylla, J. stuckertii, J. uruguayensis, L. clavellina var. grandiflora, L. uruguayensis Jussiaea leptocarpa, J. biacuminata, J. foliosa, J. leptocarpa subsp. angustissima, J. leptocarpa var. angustissima, J. leptocarpa var. meyeriana, J. pilosa, J. pilosa var. robustior, J. schottii, J. surinamensis, J. variabilis, J. variabilis var. meyeriana, J. variabilis var. pilosa, L. leptocarpa var. angustissima, L. leptocarpa var. meyeriana
Name authority (Michaux) Greuter & Burdet: Willdenowia 16: 448. (1987) (Nuttall) H. Hara: J. Jap. Bot. 28: 292. (1953)
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