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Carolina primrose-willow

Habit Herbs, from woody rootstock.

erect, subterete, 20–120 cm, branched, glabrate proximally, or strigillose, especially in distal parts, with raised strigillose lines decurrent from leaf axils mid stem.


stipules narrowly deltate, 0.3–0.5 × 0.1–0.2 mm;

petiole winged, 0.1–0.7 cm;

blade narrowly to broadly lanceolate, 4–15 × 0.3–1(–3) cm, base tapered, margins subentire to inconspicuously glandular-serrulate, apex acute to acuminate, surfaces finely strigillose, especially on abaxial veins, sometimes glabrate;

bracts narrower, reduced in size.


open, leafy racemes, flowers solitary in axils;

bracteoles lanceolate-linear or setaceous, 2–6 × 0.3–0.8 mm, attached on pedicel just proximal to base of ovary.


sepals ovate-deltate, 10–20 × 7–12 mm, abruptly acuminate or acute, inconspicuously 5–7-nerved, surfaces strigillose;

petals deep golden yellow, broadly obovate, 20–35 × 10–30 mm, apex shallowly emarginate, claw 1.5–3 mm;

stamens 8 in 2 unequal series, filaments flattened and dilated near base, epipetalous set 3.4–4.5 mm, episepalous set 4.5–5.5 mm, anthers oblong, 4–5 mm;

pollen shed in polyads;

ovary subcylindric, slightly 4-angled, 8–12(–20) mm;

nectary disc slightly elevated on ovary apex, 2–3 mm diam., 4-lobed, ringed by short hairs;

style 3–3.5 mm, stigma clavate-capitate, 2.5–3 × 2–2.5 mm, often exserted beyond anthers.


clavate-cylindric, subterete to obtusely 4-angled, 20–35 × 3.5–5 mm, thin walls, irregularly dehiscent, tapering to pedicel 10–40 mm.


in several indistinct rows per locule, yellow-brown, oblong (appearing round), 0.5 mm, shiny, raphe 2/3 as wide as body.


= 16.

Ludwigia bonariensis

Phenology Flowering summer.
Habitat Wet places, mainly along coastal areas, especially ditches, banks near brackish water.
Elevation 0–200[–2600] m. (0–700[–8500] ft.)
from FNA
AL; FL; MS; NC; SC; TX; Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz); South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay)
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Source FNA vol. 10.
Parent taxa Onagraceae > subfam. Ludwigioideae > Ludwigia > sect. Macrocarpon
Sibling taxa
L. alata, L. alternifolia, L. arcuata, L. brevipes, L. curtissii, L. decurrens, L. erecta, L. glandulosa, L. grandiflora, L. hexapetala, L. hirtella, L. lanceolata, L. leptocarpa, L. linearis, L. linifolia, L. maritima, L. microcarpa, L. octovalvis, L. palustris, L. peploides, L. peruviana, L. pilosa, L. polycarpa, L. ravenii, L. repens, L. simpsonii, L. spathulata, L. sphaerocarpa, L. suffruticosa, L. virgata
Synonyms Jussiaea bonariensis, J. neglecta, J. suffruticosa var. bonariensis
Name authority (Micheli) H. Hara: J. Jap. Bot. 28: 291. (1953)
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