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bulbed woodland star, bulbiferous prairie-star, bulbous woodland-star, smooth fringecup, smooth woodland-star

pink woodland star, small-flower fringecup, small-flower prairie star, small-flower woodland-star

slender fringecup, slender prairie star, slender woodland-star, woodland star

Habit Plants (often red), usually fragile, (flowers sometimes replaced with bulbils). Plants slender. Plants slender.
Flowering stems

simple, 8–35 cm.

simple, 20–50 cm.

simple, 15–30 cm.

Leaves

in basal rosette and cauline, basal 3-lobed, (segments 3–4-lobed, round), cauline (2–4), 3-lobed or -foliolate, much reduced, similar to basal, (segments or leaflets simple or 1–3-lobed, often with axillary bulbils);

stipules large, not decurrent on petiole, (margins fimbriate);

petiole 1–4(–8) cm;

blade green, orbiculate, base cordate, surfaces nearly glabrous or sparingly hairy.

in basal rosette and cauline, basal mostly 3-lobed, cauline (2–3), 3-foliolate, reduced, similar to basal (except lobes longer);

stipules large, decurrent on petiole base, (margins fimbriate);

petiole to 6 cm;

blade dark green, orbiculate, (base cuneate), surfaces nearly glabrous or sparsely to densely hairy.

in basal rosette and cauline, basal unlobed, irregularly 3–5-lobed, or digitately lobed, sometimes almost pinnatifid, cauline (2), deeply 3-lobed, appearing pinnatifid, much reduced, more highly dissected than basal;

stipules broad, decurrent on petiole base, (margins fimbriate);

petiole to 8 cm;

blade light green, orbiculate, (base hastate), surfaces sparsely hairy.

Inflorescences

solitary flowers or erect, 2–5(–7)-flowered racemes, often appearing corymbose, rarely branched unless plant with bulbils, (8–20 cm, flowers sometimes replaced with bulbils).

2–3, nodding, 4–14-flowered racemes, simple.

1–5, (compact), erect, 3–12-flowered racemes, simple, (10–12 cm).

Pedicels

to 3–4 times length of hypanthium, (flowers long-pedicellate).

equaling or shorter than hypanthium.

shorter than hypanthium.

Flowers

persistent, not fragrant, horizontal;

hypanthium narrowly campanulate with acute or hemispheric base, elongating slightly in fruit, throat open, (length 2 times diam.);

sepals erect in bud, widely spreading after anthesis, triangular;

petals (completely exserted), widely spreading, usually pink, rarely white, ovate, narrowly clawed, deeply and palmately 5-lobed, (without serrations at base, sinuses extending 4/5+ to base of lamina), 3.5–7 mm, ultimate margins entire;

ovary to 1/2 inferior;

styles slightly exserted in fruit;

stigma papillae apical.

deciduous if unfertilized, not fragrant, horizontal;

hypanthium obconic-elongate at anthesis, becoming very elongate in fruit, open at throat, (length 2 times diam.);

sepals erect, triangular;

petals (exserted), widely spreading, white or pink, often with prominent venation, obovate-rhombic, narrowly clawed, deeply 3-lobed, (usually with prominent sinuses extending 1/2+ to base), 7–16 mm, ultimate margins entire;

ovary 1/2+ inferior;

styles included in fruit;

stigma papillae in narrow subapical band.

persistent, not fragrant, slightly pendulous;

hypanthium campanulate or hemispheric, becoming elongate-campanulate in fruit, open at throat;

sepals erect in bud, widely spreading after anthesis, triangular;

petals (exserted), widely spreading, pink, sometimes white, ovate, narrowly clawed, palmately 5–7-lobed, (sinuses extending 1/3–1/2 distance to base), 3–7 mm, ultimate margins entire;

ovary to 1/2 inferior;

styles exserted slightly in fruit;

stigma papillae in narrow subapical band.

Seeds

0.5–0.6 mm, tuberculate (tubercles in 3–19 rows, blunt or spinelike).

0.5–0.6 mm, wrinkled or smooth.

0.6–0.7 mm, smooth or wrinkled.

2n

= 14, 28.

= 14, 21, 28, 35.

= 14, 35.

Lithophragma glabrum

Lithophragma parviflorum

Lithophragma tenellum

Phenology Flowering Feb–Sep. Flowering Mar–Aug. Flowering (Feb-)May–Jun(-Aug).
Habitat Seacoast bluffs and rocky meadows, open forests, grasslands and sagebrush shrublands to dry, open, gravelly subalpine sites Coastal bluffs, gravel prairies and rocky meadows, open forests, shrublands, and grasslands, subalpine regions, commonly with Lithophragma glabrum and L. tenellum Sagebrush desert in mountainous regions or high plateaus, dry, open forest, meadows, grasslands, and shrublands, sometimes in mesic subalpine habitats with Lithophragma parviflorum and L. glabrum
Elevation 30-3600 m [100-11800 ft] 200-3100 m [700-10200 ft] 1200-3000(-3400) m [3900-9800(-11200) ft]
Discussion

The presence or absence of bulbils is the only feature distinguishing Lithophragma glabrum and L. bulbiferum; for this reason L. bulbiferum is not recognized in this treatment. Bulbil production is extremely variable within the same clone in L. heterophyllum (R. L. Taylor 1965).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Lithophragma parviflorum is easily identified throughout its range, although morphological variation is apparent when comparing specimens from different habitats and elevations in western North America. Some authors treat L. trifoliatum as a variety of L. parviflorum.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Lithophragma tenellum usually occurs on the eastern side of the Cascade Mountains and in the Rocky Mountains, Nevada, and Utah into western North America.

Taxonomy of Lithophragma tenellum is poorly understood because there are few collections from widely divergent geographical areas. The northwestern population (Washington, British Columbia) has been separated as a distinct species (L. thompsonii) based on the extent of the basal leaf lobation, which often shows considerable variation in all species. However, other populations in the Rocky Mountains, Nevada, and Utah have been observed with this lobation, as has Washington-British Columbia material having the more typical leaf form.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Distribution
from FNA
CA; CO; ID; MT; NV; OR; SD; UT; WA; WY; AB; BC; SK
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CA; CO; ID; MT; NE; NV; OR; SD; UT; WA; WY; AB; BC
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
AZ; CA; CO; ID; MT; NM; NV; OR; UT; WA; WY; BC
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Parent taxa Saxifragaceae > Lithophragma Saxifragaceae > Lithophragma Saxifragaceae > Lithophragma
Sibling taxa
L. affine, L. bolanderi, L. campanulatum, L. cymbalaria, L. heterophyllum, L. maximum, L. parviflorum, L. tenellum, L. trifoliatum
L. affine, L. bolanderi, L. campanulatum, L. cymbalaria, L. glabrum, L. heterophyllum, L. maximum, L. tenellum, L. trifoliatum
L. affine, L. bolanderi, L. campanulatum, L. cymbalaria, L. glabrum, L. heterophyllum, L. maximum, L. parviflorum, L. trifoliatum
Synonyms L. bulbiferum, L. glabrum var. bulbiferum, L. tenellum var. floridum, Tellima bulbifera, Tellima glabra Tellima parviflora, L. anemonoides, L. austromontanum, Pleurendotria reniformis L. australe, L. brevilobum, L. rupicola, L. tenellum var. thompsonii, L. thompsonii, Tellima tenella
Name authority Nuttall: in J. Torrey and A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 584. 1840 (as glabra) , (Hooker) Nuttall: in J. Torrey and A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 584. 1840 (as parviflora) , Nuttall: in J. Torrey and A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 584. 1840 (as tenella) ,
Source Flora of North America vol. 8, p. 83. Flora of North America vol. 8, p. 80. Flora of North America vol. 8, p. 79.
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