The green links below add additional plants to the comparison table. Blue links lead to other Web sites.
enable glossary links
Lilium pardalinum

California tiger lily, leopard lily, panther lily

chaparral lily, redwood lily


rhizomatous, usually branching, continuously scaly, 1.4–5.1 × 3.9–19 cm, 0.2–0.6 times taller than long;

scales sometimes unsegmented but always some 2–4-segmented on each bulb, longest 1–3.3 cm;

stem roots absent.

± ovoid, 3.9–9.4 × 2.5–7.1 cm, 1.1–2.6 times taller than long;

scales unsegmented, longest 4–8.9 cm;

stem roots absent.


to 2.8 m, strongly clonal and thus forming dense colonies, to weakly clonal and forming small colonies or clumps.

to 2 m, often glaucous.


rounded in cross section.

rounded in cross section.


usually ± evenly distributed along stem, rarely concentrated proximally, scattered or in 1–6 whorls or partial whorls, 3–19 leaves per whorl, horizontal and drooping at tips to ascending, 4.9–26.5 × 0.3–5.6 cm, 3–34 times longer than wide;

blade usually ± elliptic, wide or narrow, margins usually not undulate, apex acute, often narrowly so;

veins and margins ± smooth abaxially.

in 3–5(–more) whorls or partial whorls, 3–15 leaves per whorl, usually ± ascending, sometimes horizontal and drooping at tips, 3.2–12.3 × 1–2.8 cm, 2–6.4 times longer than wide;

blade oblanceolate, sometimes obovate, rarely elliptic, margins usually undulate, apex acute, often widely so, or obtuse;

veins and margins ± smooth abaxially.


racemose, 1–28(–35)-flowered.

racemose, often with flowers in loosely defined whorls, 1–40-flowered.


pendent, usually not fragrant;

perianth Turk’s-cap-shaped;

sepals and petals reflexed 1/4–1/3 along length from base, yellow, yellow-orange, or orange proximally, darker orange to red-orange to red on distal 1/5–3/5 (entirely orange or yellow-orange in subsp. wigginsii), with maroon spots concentrated proximally and always surrounded by yellow or orange if extending into distal reddish zone, conspicuously green abaxially on proximal ± 1/5, not distinctly clawed;

sepals not ridged abaxially, 3.5–10.4 × 0.9–2.2 cm;

petals 3.4–10.2 × 0.9–2.5 cm;

stamens moderately to strongly exserted;

filaments moderately to widely spreading, diverging 7°–22° from axis;

anthers ± magenta or sometimes orange, orange-pink, or pale yellow, 0.5–2.2 cm;

pollen red-brown, red-orange, brown-orange, rust, orange, or yellow;

pistil 3.1–7.5 cm;

ovary 1–2.2 cm;

style green, often pale, rarely sordid;

pedicel 6–32 cm.

ascending to erect, fragrant;

perianth funnelform;

sepals and petals recurved 1/2–2/3 along length from base, white, aging pink-purple, with fine magenta spots concentrated proximally or less often generally distributed, often reddish or purplish abaxially, not distinctly clawed;

sepals not ridged abaxially, 4.3–6.6 × 0.6–1.4 cm;

petals noticeably wider than sepals, oblanceolate and often very wide proximally, 4.2–6.4 × 0.9–1.9 cm, apex widely acute, obtuse, or rounded;

stamens included;

filaments barely spreading, diverging 3°–12° from axis;

anthers pale yellow, 0.4–0.8 cm;

pollen yellow;

pistil 2.7–3.8 cm;

ovary 1.2–1.8 cm;

style pale green;

pedicel 1.4–9.5 cm.


2.2–5.7 × 1.2–2.1 cm, 1.5–3.7 times longer than wide.

usually with 6 longitudinal ridges, 2–3.7 × 1.7–2.7 cm, 1.1–1.7 times longer than wide.





= 24.

Lilium pardalinum

Lilium rubescens

Phenology Flowering summer (late May–early Aug).
Habitat Dry soils in chaparral, gaps in redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endlicher] or mixed evergreen forests
Elevation 0–1500 m (0–4900 ft)
from FNA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]

Subspecies 5 (5 in the flora).

The subspecies of Lilium pardalinum display a classic pattern of discrete geographical ranges with intervening zones of introgression, and no two occur sympatrically without intermixing. Plants in the hybrid zones are confusing in appearance and cannot be assigned to subspecies. However, each subspecies is fairly well marked within its core distribution. With the exception of subsp. pitkinense, the subspecies of L. pardalinum can be common plants in the proper habitats within their rather narrow distributions.

Leaf size and shape are quite variable in Lilium pardalinum subspecies and often clearly dependent on environment. In populations that typically have narrow, ascending leaves, shaded plants often have wide, horizontal leaves. This hampers taxonomic separation as well as identification, especially of herbarium specimens. Further field study is desirable.

Lilium pardalinum is primarily pollinated by western tiger swallowtails (Papilio rutulus Lucas, family Papilionidae) and pale swallowtails (P. eurymedon Lucas); several species of hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) are also important visitors, especially when butterflies are rare.

The Atsugewi, Karok, and Yana ate Lilium pardalinum bulbs steamed or baked in an earth oven (D. E. Moerman 1986).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Lilium rubescens occurs from Santa Cruz County north through the Coast Ranges to Del Norte County, and is declining in the southern part of its range due to urbanization and over-collecting.

This is the only species in the genus in which the chromosome complement is known to consist of one pair of long metacentric chromosomes and eleven pairs of acrocentric chromosomes; all others possess two long metacentric pairs and ten shorter acrocentric pairs (M. W. Skinner 1988).

Various bee species visit the flowers during the day to collect nectar and pollen and may be the most significant pollinators. Pale swallowtails (Papilio eurymedon Lucas, family Papilionidae) also visit this lily.

The Karok used Lilium rubescens decoratively in bouquets (D. E. Moerman 1986).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

1. Sepals and petals uniformly yellow or yellow-orange; sepals 3.5–7.1 cm; anthers pale yellow, 0.5–1.3 cm; pollen yellow or orange; pistil 3.1–4.3 cm; capsules 2.3–4.2 cm; n California, s Oregon.
subsp. wigginsii
1. Sepals and petals ± 2-toned, with yellow or orange proximally, distal 1/5–3/5 darker orange to red; sepals 3.7–10.4 cm; anthers magenta, occasionally purple or orange, 0.5–2.2 cm; pollen yellow to rust; pistil 3.3–7.5 cm; capsules 2.2–5.7 cm; California, s Oregon.
→ 2
2. Sepals (5.9–)6.6–10.4 cm; anthers 1.1–2.2 cm; capsules 2.9–5.7 cm; leaves 3–12 times longer than wide, blade ± elliptic; stems strongly clonal, forming large colonies; California.
subsp. pardalinum
2. Sepals 3.7–8.3 cm; anthers 0.5–1.8 cm; capsules 2.2–4.8 cm; leaves 3–34 times longer than wide, blade elliptic to linear; stems weakly to moderately clonal, sometimes forming small colonies; n California, s Oregon.
→ 3
3. Leaves 7.3–34 times longer than wide, often concentrated proximally, often ascending, sometimes horizontal, blade ± linear; sepals (4.9–)5.3–8.3 cm; anthers 0.6–1.8 cm; pollen usually dark orange; extreme nw California, adjacent s Oregon.
subsp. vollmeri
3. Leaves 3–17 times longer than wide, ± evenly distributed along stem, ± ascending or horizontal, blade ± elliptic; sepals 3.7–7.6 cm; anthers 0.5–1.4 cm; pollen yellow, orange, or red- or brown-orange; n California, s Oregon.
→ 4
4. Pollen red- or brown-orange; anthers magenta; bulb scales usually 2-segmented; n Coast Ranges near Sebastopol, California.
subsp. pitkinense
4. Pollen usually yellow or bright orange; anthers orange to magenta; bulb scales (1–)2–4-segmented; ne California, adjacent s Oregon.
subsp. shastense
Source FNA vol. 26, p. 188. FNA vol. 26, p. 183.
Parent taxa Liliaceae > Lilium Liliaceae > Lilium
Sibling taxa
L. bolanderi, L. canadense, L. catesbaei, L. columbianum, L. grayi, L. humboldtii, L. iridollae, L. kelleyanum, L. kelloggii, L. lancifolium, L. maritimum, L. michauxii, L. michiganense, L. occidentale, L. parryi, L. parvum, L. philadelphicum, L. pyrophilum, L. rubescens, L. superbum, L. washingtonianum
L. bolanderi, L. canadense, L. catesbaei, L. columbianum, L. grayi, L. humboldtii, L. iridollae, L. kelleyanum, L. kelloggii, L. lancifolium, L. maritimum, L. michauxii, L. michiganense, L. occidentale, L. pardalinum, L. parryi, L. parvum, L. philadelphicum, L. pyrophilum, L. superbum, L. washingtonianum
Subordinate taxa
L. pardalinum subsp. pardalinum, L. pardalinum subsp. pitkinense, L. pardalinum subsp. shastense, L. pardalinum subsp. vollmeri, L. pardalinum subsp. wigginsii
Synonyms L. washingtonianum var. purpureum
Name authority Kellogg: Hesperian (San Francisco) 3: 300. (1859) S. Watson: Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 14: 256. (1879)
Web links