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Lilium pardalinum

California tiger lily, leopard lily, panther lily

alpine lily, Sierra tiger lily

Bulbs

rhizomatous, usually branching, continuously scaly, 1.4–5.1 × 3.9–19 cm, 0.2–0.6 times taller than long;

scales sometimes unsegmented but always some 2–4-segmented on each bulb, longest 1–3.3 cm;

stem roots absent.

rhizomatous, unbranched, continuously scaly, 1.4–3.5 × 3.3–9.2 cm, 0.3–0.5 times taller than long;

scales (1–)2–3(–4)-segmented, longest 1.1–3.4 cm;

stem roots absent.

Stems

to 2.8 m, strongly clonal and thus forming dense colonies, to weakly clonal and forming small colonies or clumps.

to 1.7 m. Buds rounded in cross section.

Buds

rounded in cross section.

Leaves

usually ± evenly distributed along stem, rarely concentrated proximally, scattered or in 1–6 whorls or partial whorls, 3–19 leaves per whorl, horizontal and drooping at tips to ascending, 4.9–26.5 × 0.3–5.6 cm, 3–34 times longer than wide;

blade usually ± elliptic, wide or narrow, margins usually not undulate, apex acute, often narrowly so;

veins and margins ± smooth abaxially.

in 2–5 whorls or partial whorls, 3–13 leaves per whorl, ± horizontal and drooping at tips or ascending in sun, 4–15.1 × 0.5–4.4 cm, 2.3–10.8 times longer than wide;

blade ± elliptic, margins not undulate, apex acute, often narrowly so;

veins and margins ± smooth abaxially.

Inflorescences

racemose, 1–28(–35)-flowered.

racemose, 1–26(–41)-flowered.

Flowers

pendent, usually not fragrant;

perianth Turk’s-cap-shaped;

sepals and petals reflexed 1/4–1/3 along length from base, yellow, yellow-orange, or orange proximally, darker orange to red-orange to red on distal 1/5–3/5 (entirely orange or yellow-orange in subsp. wigginsii), with maroon spots concentrated proximally and always surrounded by yellow or orange if extending into distal reddish zone, conspicuously green abaxially on proximal ± 1/5, not distinctly clawed;

sepals not ridged abaxially, 3.5–10.4 × 0.9–2.2 cm;

petals 3.4–10.2 × 0.9–2.5 cm;

stamens moderately to strongly exserted;

filaments moderately to widely spreading, diverging 7°–22° from axis;

anthers ± magenta or sometimes orange, orange-pink, or pale yellow, 0.5–2.2 cm;

pollen red-brown, red-orange, brown-orange, rust, orange, or yellow;

pistil 3.1–7.5 cm;

ovary 1–2.2 cm;

style green, often pale, rarely sordid;

pedicel 6–32 cm.

± horizontal to ascending, sometimes slightly bilaterally symmetric, not fragrant;

perianth ± funnelform;

sepals and petals somewhat recurved 3/5–2/3 along length from base, not strongly reflexed, lower often less recurved than upper and forming landing platform, orange or yellowish proximally, darker (light orange, orange, red-orange, red, or rarely ± pinkish) on distal 2/5, occasionally uniformly light orange or rarely yellow, spotted dark purple-brown or maroon, often pale abaxially, not distinctly clawed;

sepals not ridged abaxially, noticeably wider than petals, 3.2–4.2 × 0.8–1.3 cm;

petals 3.2–4.2 × 0.6–1.2 cm;

stamens moderately exserted;

filaments moderately spreading, diverging 8°–17° from axis;

anthers pale yellow, orangish, or magenta, 0.3–0.8 cm;

pollen yellowish to red-orange;

pistil 2.3–3.7 cm;

ovary 0.8–1.4 cm;

style pale green;

pedicel 3.5–15.5 cm.

Capsules

2.2–5.7 × 1.2–2.1 cm, 1.5–3.7 times longer than wide.

1.6–2.7 × 1.2–1.8 cm, 1.2–1.9 times longer than wide.

Seeds

123–264.

90–132.

2n

= 24.

Lilium pardalinum

Lilium parvum

Phenology Flowering summer (mid Jun–Aug).
Habitat Wet meadows, willow (Salix spp.) thickets, and streams in coniferous forests
Elevation 1400–2900 m (4600–9500 ft)
Distribution
from FNA
CA; OR
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CA; NV
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Subspecies 5 (5 in the flora).

The subspecies of Lilium pardalinum display a classic pattern of discrete geographical ranges with intervening zones of introgression, and no two occur sympatrically without intermixing. Plants in the hybrid zones are confusing in appearance and cannot be assigned to subspecies. However, each subspecies is fairly well marked within its core distribution. With the exception of subsp. pitkinense, the subspecies of L. pardalinum can be common plants in the proper habitats within their rather narrow distributions.

Leaf size and shape are quite variable in Lilium pardalinum subspecies and often clearly dependent on environment. In populations that typically have narrow, ascending leaves, shaded plants often have wide, horizontal leaves. This hampers taxonomic separation as well as identification, especially of herbarium specimens. Further field study is desirable.

Lilium pardalinum is primarily pollinated by western tiger swallowtails (Papilio rutulus Lucas, family Papilionidae) and pale swallowtails (P. eurymedon Lucas); several species of hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) are also important visitors, especially when butterflies are rare.

The Atsugewi, Karok, and Yana ate Lilium pardalinum bulbs steamed or baked in an earth oven (D. E. Moerman 1986).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

At the lower elevations within its range, Lilium parvum tends to have clear yellow-orange flowers—a form that has been recognized as L. parvum var. crocatumbut perianth parts are redder apically at higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada. The pink-flowered form that is apparently localized at lower elevations in El Dorado County, California, is referred to informally as the ditch lily (O. H. Ballantyne 1983).

Lilium parvum hybridizes sporadically with L. pardalinum subsp. pardalinum at middle elevations (ca. 1200–1500 m) in the Sierra Nevada, resulting in variable swarms of plants with flowers that are intermediate in orientation, size, and perianth recurvature. Hybrids with Lilium kelleyanum are discussed under that species.

Lilium parvum is a pollination generalist visited by several species of hummingbirds (family Trochilidae), western tiger swallowtails (Papilio rutulus Lucas, family Papilionidae), pale swallowtails (P. eurymedon Lucas), and various bees (mostly family Apidae).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Sepals and petals uniformly yellow or yellow-orange; sepals 3.5–7.1 cm; anthers pale yellow, 0.5–1.3 cm; pollen yellow or orange; pistil 3.1–4.3 cm; capsules 2.3–4.2 cm; n California, s Oregon.
subsp. wigginsii
1. Sepals and petals ± 2-toned, with yellow or orange proximally, distal 1/5–3/5 darker orange to red; sepals 3.7–10.4 cm; anthers magenta, occasionally purple or orange, 0.5–2.2 cm; pollen yellow to rust; pistil 3.3–7.5 cm; capsules 2.2–5.7 cm; California, s Oregon.
→ 2
2. Sepals (5.9–)6.6–10.4 cm; anthers 1.1–2.2 cm; capsules 2.9–5.7 cm; leaves 3–12 times longer than wide, blade ± elliptic; stems strongly clonal, forming large colonies; California.
subsp. pardalinum
2. Sepals 3.7–8.3 cm; anthers 0.5–1.8 cm; capsules 2.2–4.8 cm; leaves 3–34 times longer than wide, blade elliptic to linear; stems weakly to moderately clonal, sometimes forming small colonies; n California, s Oregon.
→ 3
3. Leaves 7.3–34 times longer than wide, often concentrated proximally, often ascending, sometimes horizontal, blade ± linear; sepals (4.9–)5.3–8.3 cm; anthers 0.6–1.8 cm; pollen usually dark orange; extreme nw California, adjacent s Oregon.
subsp. vollmeri
3. Leaves 3–17 times longer than wide, ± evenly distributed along stem, ± ascending or horizontal, blade ± elliptic; sepals 3.7–7.6 cm; anthers 0.5–1.4 cm; pollen yellow, orange, or red- or brown-orange; n California, s Oregon.
→ 4
4. Pollen red- or brown-orange; anthers magenta; bulb scales usually 2-segmented; n Coast Ranges near Sebastopol, California.
subsp. pitkinense
4. Pollen usually yellow or bright orange; anthers orange to magenta; bulb scales (1–)2–4-segmented; ne California, adjacent s Oregon.
subsp. shastense
Source FNA vol. 26, p. 188. FNA vol. 26, p. 188.
Parent taxa Liliaceae > Lilium Liliaceae > Lilium
Sibling taxa
L. bolanderi, L. canadense, L. catesbaei, L. columbianum, L. grayi, L. humboldtii, L. iridollae, L. kelleyanum, L. kelloggii, L. lancifolium, L. maritimum, L. michauxii, L. michiganense, L. occidentale, L. parryi, L. parvum, L. philadelphicum, L. pyrophilum, L. rubescens, L. superbum, L. washingtonianum
L. bolanderi, L. canadense, L. catesbaei, L. columbianum, L. grayi, L. humboldtii, L. iridollae, L. kelleyanum, L. kelloggii, L. lancifolium, L. maritimum, L. michauxii, L. michiganense, L. occidentale, L. pardalinum, L. parryi, L. philadelphicum, L. pyrophilum, L. rubescens, L. superbum, L. washingtonianum
Subordinate taxa
L. pardalinum subsp. pardalinum, L. pardalinum subsp. pitkinense, L. pardalinum subsp. shastense, L. pardalinum subsp. vollmeri, L. pardalinum subsp. wigginsii
Synonyms L. canadense var. parvum, L. parvum var. crocatum
Name authority Kellogg: Hesperian (San Francisco) 3: 300. (1859) Kellogg: Hesperian (San Francisco) 8: 163. (1862)
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