The green links below add additional plants to the comparison table. Blue links lead to other Web sites.
enable glossary links
Lilium pardalinum

California tiger lily, leopard lily, panther lily

Photo is of parent taxon

Vollmer's lily

Bulbs

rhizomatous, usually branching, continuously scaly, 1.4–5.1 × 3.9–19 cm, 0.2–0.6 times taller than long;

scales sometimes unsegmented but always some 2–4-segmented on each bulb, longest 1–3.3 cm;

stem roots absent.

branching less often and less regularly than subsp. pardalinum, 1.4–3.6 × 4.6–12.8 cm, 0.2–0.5 times taller than long;

scales 1–2-segmented, longest 1–2.6 cm.

Stems

to 2.8 m, strongly clonal and thus forming dense colonies, to weakly clonal and forming small colonies or clumps.

to 1.7 m, weakly clonal and not forming large colonies.

Buds

rounded in cross section.

Leaves

usually ± evenly distributed along stem, rarely concentrated proximally, scattered or in 1–6 whorls or partial whorls, 3–19 leaves per whorl, horizontal and drooping at tips to ascending, 4.9–26.5 × 0.3–5.6 cm, 3–34 times longer than wide;

blade usually ± elliptic, wide or narrow, margins usually not undulate, apex acute, often narrowly so;

veins and margins ± smooth abaxially.

often concentrated proximally, scattered, especially in small plants, or in 1–6 whorls or partial whorls, 3–15 leaves per whorl, often ascending, sometimes horizontal and drooping at the tips, 4.9–26.5 × 0.3–2.4 cm, 7.3–34 times longer than wide;

blade linear to narrowly elliptic, sometimes lance-linear, especially in distal leaves, or weakly oblanceolate, especially in proximal leaves, margins not undulate.

Racemes

1–13-flowered.

Inflorescences

racemose, 1–28(–35)-flowered.

Flowers

pendent, usually not fragrant;

perianth Turk’s-cap-shaped;

sepals and petals reflexed 1/4–1/3 along length from base, yellow, yellow-orange, or orange proximally, darker orange to red-orange to red on distal 1/5–3/5 (entirely orange or yellow-orange in subsp. wigginsii), with maroon spots concentrated proximally and always surrounded by yellow or orange if extending into distal reddish zone, conspicuously green abaxially on proximal ± 1/5, not distinctly clawed;

sepals not ridged abaxially, 3.5–10.4 × 0.9–2.2 cm;

petals 3.4–10.2 × 0.9–2.5 cm;

stamens moderately to strongly exserted;

filaments moderately to widely spreading, diverging 7°–22° from axis;

anthers ± magenta or sometimes orange, orange-pink, or pale yellow, 0.5–2.2 cm;

pollen red-brown, red-orange, brown-orange, rust, orange, or yellow;

pistil 3.1–7.5 cm;

ovary 1–2.2 cm;

style green, often pale, rarely sordid;

pedicel 6–32 cm.

not fragrant;

sepals and petals reflexed 1/4–1/3 along length from base, sometimes uniformly orange, usually yellow-orange or orange proximally, darker red-orange to red or crimson on distal 2/5–3/5;

sepals (4.9–)5.3–8.3 × 1–2.2 cm;

petals 4.8–8 × 1–2.1 cm;

stamens moderately exserted;

filaments widely spreading, diverging 12°–22° from axis;

anthers magenta or purple, 0.6–1.8 cm;

pollen dark orange, sometimes rust-orange;

pistil 3.5–5.3 cm;

ovary 1.4–2.2 cm;

pedicel 9–32 cm.

Capsules

2.2–5.7 × 1.2–2.1 cm, 1.5–3.7 times longer than wide.

2.5–4.8 × 1.2–2 cm, 1.5–3.2 times longer than wide.

Seeds

123–264.

132–207.

2n

= 24.

Lilium pardalinum

Lilium pardalinum subsp. vollmeri

Phenology Flowering summer (Jul–mid Aug).
Habitat Bogs with California pitcher plant (Darlingtonia californica Torrey), hillside springs, streams
Elevation 100–1200 m (300–3900 ft)
Distribution
from FNA
CA; OR
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
CA; OR
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Subspecies 5 (5 in the flora).

The subspecies of Lilium pardalinum display a classic pattern of discrete geographical ranges with intervening zones of introgression, and no two occur sympatrically without intermixing. Plants in the hybrid zones are confusing in appearance and cannot be assigned to subspecies. However, each subspecies is fairly well marked within its core distribution. With the exception of subsp. pitkinense, the subspecies of L. pardalinum can be common plants in the proper habitats within their rather narrow distributions.

Leaf size and shape are quite variable in Lilium pardalinum subspecies and often clearly dependent on environment. In populations that typically have narrow, ascending leaves, shaded plants often have wide, horizontal leaves. This hampers taxonomic separation as well as identification, especially of herbarium specimens. Further field study is desirable.

Lilium pardalinum is primarily pollinated by western tiger swallowtails (Papilio rutulus Lucas, family Papilionidae) and pale swallowtails (P. eurymedon Lucas); several species of hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) are also important visitors, especially when butterflies are rare.

The Atsugewi, Karok, and Yana ate Lilium pardalinum bulbs steamed or baked in an earth oven (D. E. Moerman 1986).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Subspecies vollmeri is narrowly endemic to the Siskiyou Mountains serpentine in extreme northwestern California and adjacent Oregon. A collection from near Wimer in Jackson County, Oregon, evidently represents the northernmost extent of this taxon. To the south it intergrades with subsp. pardalinum, but it can usually be told by its somewhat smaller and often redder flowers, and its narrowly elliptic or linear leaves that are often concentrated proximally on the stem. Northern populations in Curry County, Oregon, and those in the shade are rather similar to subsp. pardalinum, though the plants are usually less clonal. In the eastern part of its range, for example near Grayback Mountain in Josephine County, Oregon, and near Sanger Peak in Del Norte County, California, it intergrades extensively with subsp. wigginsii, producing swarms of individuals that vary in leaf arrangement and shape, and flower and anther coloration.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Sepals and petals uniformly yellow or yellow-orange; sepals 3.5–7.1 cm; anthers pale yellow, 0.5–1.3 cm; pollen yellow or orange; pistil 3.1–4.3 cm; capsules 2.3–4.2 cm; n California, s Oregon.
subsp. wigginsii
1. Sepals and petals ± 2-toned, with yellow or orange proximally, distal 1/5–3/5 darker orange to red; sepals 3.7–10.4 cm; anthers magenta, occasionally purple or orange, 0.5–2.2 cm; pollen yellow to rust; pistil 3.3–7.5 cm; capsules 2.2–5.7 cm; California, s Oregon.
→ 2
2. Sepals (5.9–)6.6–10.4 cm; anthers 1.1–2.2 cm; capsules 2.9–5.7 cm; leaves 3–12 times longer than wide, blade ± elliptic; stems strongly clonal, forming large colonies; California.
subsp. pardalinum
2. Sepals 3.7–8.3 cm; anthers 0.5–1.8 cm; capsules 2.2–4.8 cm; leaves 3–34 times longer than wide, blade elliptic to linear; stems weakly to moderately clonal, sometimes forming small colonies; n California, s Oregon.
→ 3
3. Leaves 7.3–34 times longer than wide, often concentrated proximally, often ascending, sometimes horizontal, blade ± linear; sepals (4.9–)5.3–8.3 cm; anthers 0.6–1.8 cm; pollen usually dark orange; extreme nw California, adjacent s Oregon.
subsp. vollmeri
3. Leaves 3–17 times longer than wide, ± evenly distributed along stem, ± ascending or horizontal, blade ± elliptic; sepals 3.7–7.6 cm; anthers 0.5–1.4 cm; pollen yellow, orange, or red- or brown-orange; n California, s Oregon.
→ 4
4. Pollen red- or brown-orange; anthers magenta; bulb scales usually 2-segmented; n Coast Ranges near Sebastopol, California.
subsp. pitkinense
4. Pollen usually yellow or bright orange; anthers orange to magenta; bulb scales (1–)2–4-segmented; ne California, adjacent s Oregon.
subsp. shastense
Source FNA vol. 26, p. 188. FNA vol. 26, p. 191.
Parent taxa Liliaceae > Lilium Liliaceae > Lilium > Lilium pardalinum
Sibling taxa
L. bolanderi, L. canadense, L. catesbaei, L. columbianum, L. grayi, L. humboldtii, L. iridollae, L. kelleyanum, L. kelloggii, L. lancifolium, L. maritimum, L. michauxii, L. michiganense, L. occidentale, L. parryi, L. parvum, L. philadelphicum, L. pyrophilum, L. rubescens, L. superbum, L. washingtonianum
L. pardalinum subsp. pardalinum, L. pardalinum subsp. pitkinense, L. pardalinum subsp. shastense, L. pardalinum subsp. wigginsii
Subordinate taxa
L. pardalinum subsp. pardalinum, L. pardalinum subsp. pitkinense, L. pardalinum subsp. shastense, L. pardalinum subsp. vollmeri, L. pardalinum subsp. wigginsii
Synonyms L. vollmeri
Name authority Kellogg: Hesperian (San Francisco) 3: 300. (1859) (Eastwood) M. W. Skinner: Novon 12: 257. (2002)
Web links