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marguerite blanche, ox-eye daisy, oxe eye daisy

daisy

Habit Perennials, 10–30(–100+) cm. Perennials, (10–)40–130(–200+) cm (rhizomatous, roots usually red-tipped).
Stems

simple or distally branched.

usually 1, erect, simple or branched, glabrous or hairy (hairs basifixed).

Leaves

mostly basal or basal and cauline; petiolate or sessile;

blades obovate to lanceolate or linear, often 1[–2+]-pinnately lobed or toothed, ultimate margins dentate or entire, faces glabrous or sparsely hairy.

Basal leaves

petioles 10–30(–120) mm, expanding into obovate to spatulate blades 12–35(–50+) × 8–20(–30) mm, margins usually pinnately lobed (lobes 3–7+) and/or irregularly toothed.

Cauline leaves

petiolate or sessile;

blades oblanceolate or spatulate to lanceolate or linear, 30–80+ × 2–15+ mm, margins of mid-stem leaves usually irregularly toothed proximally and distally.

Involucres

12–20+ mm diam.

hemispheric or broader, 12–35+ mm diam.

Receptacles

convex, epaleate.

Ray florets

usually 13–34+, rarely 0;

laminae 12–20(–35+) mm.

usually 13–34+, rarely 0, pistillate, fertile;

corollas white (drying pinkish), laminae ovate to linear.

Disc florets

120–200+, bisexual, fertile;

corollas yellow, tubes ± cylindric (proximally swollen, becoming spongy in fruit), throats campanulate, lobes 5, deltate (without resin sacs).

Phyllaries

(the larger) 2–3 mm wide.

persistent, 35–60+ in 3–4+ series, distinct, ovate or lance-ovate to oblanceolate, unequal, margins and apices (colorless or pale to dark brown) scarious (tips not notably dilated; abaxial faces glabrous or sparsely hairy).

Heads

usually radiate, rarely discoid, borne singly or in 2s or 3s.

Cypselae

± columnar to obovoid, ribs ± 10, faces glabrous (pericarps with myxogenic cells on ribs and resin sacs between ribs; embryo sac development monosporic);

pappi 0 (wall tissue of ray cypselae sometimes produced as coronas or auricles on some cypselae).

Ray cypselae

1.5–2.5 mm, apices usually coronate or auriculate.

x

= 9.

2n

= 18, 36, 54, 72, 90.

Leucanthemum vulgare

Leucanthemum

Phenology Flowering spring–fall.
Habitat Disturbed places, meadows, seeps, clearings
Elevation 0–2000 m (0–6600 ft)
Distribution
from FNA
AK; AR; AZ; CA; CO; CT; FL; IA; ID; IL; IN; KS; MA; MI; MO; MT; ND; NM; NV; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; SC; SD; TN; UT; VA; WA; WI; WV; WY; AB; BC; ON; QC; SK; Europe; widely adventive [Introduced in North America]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from USDA
mostly temperate Europe (some widely cultivated and sparingly adventive) [Introduced in North America]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Some botanists (e.g., W. J. Cody 1996) have treated Leucanthemum ircutianum de Candolle, with blades of mid and distal cauline leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate and not ± pinnate at bases, as distinct from L. vulgare.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Species 20–40+ (3 in the flora).

The three leucanthemums recognized here are weakly distinct and are sometimes included (with a dozen or more others) in a single, polymorphic Leucanthemum vulgare.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Blades of basal leaves usually pinnately lobed (lobes 3–7+) and/or irregularly toothed; margins of mid-stem leaves usually irregularly toothed proximally and distally
L. vulgare
1. Blades of basal leaves not lobed, usually toothed, rarely entire; margins of mid-stem leaves usually entire proximally, regularly serrate distally
→ 2
2. Blades of cauline leaves oblanceolate to lanceolate or linear, 50–120+ × 8–22+ mm; larger phyllaries 2–3 mm wide; ray cypselae 2–3(–4 mm), apices usually bare, rarely adaxially auriculate
L. maximum
2. Blades of cauline leaves elliptic to oblanceolate, 30–120+ × 12–25(–35+) mm; larger phyllaries 4–5 mm wide; ray cypselae 3–4 mm, apices usually adaxially auriculate.
L. lacustre
Source FNA vol. 19, p. 558. FNA vol. 19, p. 557. Author: John L. Strother.
Parent taxa Asteraceae > tribe Anthemideae > Leucanthemum Asteraceae > tribe Anthemideae
Sibling taxa
L. lacustre, L. maximum
Subordinate taxa
L. lacustre, L. maximum, L. vulgare
Synonyms Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var. pinnatifidum
Name authority Lamarck: Fl. Franç. 2: 137. (1779) Miller: Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4, vol. 2. (1754)
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