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common toad rush, toad rush

Habit Herbs, annual, cespitose, 0.5–4 dm.

1–many, occasionally becoming decumbent.




basal and cauline;

auricles rudimentary or absent;

blade flat, 3–13 cm × 0.3–1.1 mm.


loose and diffuse or less often compact, usually at least ½1/2 total height of plant;

primary bract shorter than inflorescence.


bracteoles 2;

tepals greenish, lanceolate, 3.8–7(–8.5) mm;

inner series slightly shorter, apex sometimes obtuse;

stamens 3–6, filaments (0.7–)1–1.8 mm, anthers 0.3–0.8 mm;

style 0.1–0.2 mm.


tan to reddish brown, 3-locular, ellipsoid to narrowly so, slightly truncate, 2.7–4 × 1–1.5 mm, sometimes exceeding inner tepals but usually not outer series.


yellowish, widely ellipsoid to ovoid, 0.26–0.49, not tailed.


= 27–37, 58–81, 108–115.

Juncus bufonius

Phenology Flowering and fruiting spring–early fall.
Habitat Moist soils in meadows, along lakeshores or stream banks, ditches, or roadsides, especially frequent in drawdown areas, usually in open sites and often becoming weedy
from FNA
AK; AL; AR; AZ; CA; CO; CT; DC; DE; FL; GA; IA; ID; IL; IN; KS; KY; LA; MA; MD; ME; MI; MN; MO; MS; MT; NC; ND; NE; NH; NJ; NM; NV; NY; OH; OK; OR; PA; RI; SC; SD; TN; TX; UT; VA; VT; WA; WI; WV; WY; AB; BC; MB; NB; NL; NS; NT; ON; PE; QC; SK; YT; Greenland; nearly worldwide
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]

Nearly worldwide, Juncus bufonius is found essentially throughout North America except north of the Alaskan and Canadian tTaiga. Juncus bufonius is a highly polymorphic complex that is poorly understood systematically. Insufficient evidence exists upon which to base the segregation of the plethora of taxa that have been recognized out of this group in the past.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 22.
Parent taxa Juncaceae > Juncus > subg. Poiophylli
Sibling taxa
J. acuminatus, J. acutiflorus, J. acutus, J. alpinoarticulatus, J. anthelatus, J. arcticus, J. articulatus, J. biglumis, J. bolanderi, J. brachycarpus, J. brachycephalus, J. brachyphyllus, J. brevicaudatus, J. bryoides, J. bulbosus, J. caesariensis, J. canadensis, J. capillaris, J. capitatus, J. castaneus, J. chlorocephalus, J. compressus, J. confusus, J. cooperi, J. coriaceus, J. covillei, J. debilis, J. dichotomus, J. diffusissimus, J. drummondii, J. dubius, J. dudleyi, J. effusus, J. elliottii, J. ensifolius, J. falcatus, J. filiformis, J. filipendulus, J. georgianus, J. gerardii, J. greenei, J. gymnocarpus, J. hallii, J. hemiendytus, J. howellii, J. inflexus, J. interior, J. kelloggii, J. leiospermus, J. lesueurii, J. longistylis, J. luciensis, J. macrandrus, J. macrophyllus, J. marginatus, J. maritimus, J. megacephalus, J. mertensianus, J. militaris, J. nevadensis, J. nodatus, J. nodosus, J. occidentalis, J. orthophyllus, J. oxymeris, J. parryi, J. patens, J. pelocarpus, J. pervetus, J. phaeocephalus, J. polycephalus, J. regelii, J. repens, J. roemerianus, J. scirpoides, J. secundus, J. squarrosus, J. stygius, J. subcaudatus, J. subtilis, J. supiniformis, J. tenuis, J. texanus, J. textilis, J. tiehmii, J. torreyi, J. trifidus, J. triformis, J. triglumis, J. trigonocarpus, J. uncialis, J. validus, J. vaseyi, J. xiphioides
Synonyms J. bufonius var. congestus, J. bufonius var. halophilus, J. bufonius var. hybridus, J. bufonius var. occidentalis, J. bufonius var. ranarius, J. congestus, J. ranarius
Name authority Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 1: 328. (1753)
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