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coastal gumweed, Columbia gumweed, gumweed, hairy gum-weed, hairy gumplant

grindelia, gum-plant, gumweed, resin-weed

Habit Perennials or subshrubs (sometimes flowering first or second year), 8–60(–250+) cm. Annuals, biennials, perennials, or subshrubs, 15–250+ cm (taprooted, rhizomatous in G. oölepis).
Stems

usually erect, sometimes prostrate, decumbent, or ascending, usually green to stramineous, brown, or reddish, sometimes whitish, arachnose, hirsutulous, puberulous, or villous (sometimes stipitate-glandular as well), or glabrous (then often resinous).

(1–6+) usually erect, sometimes ascending or decumbent to prostrate, simple or branched, glabrous or hairy, often gland-dotted and/or resinous.

Leaves

basal and cauline or mostly cauline; alternate; petiolate (proximal) or sessile (distal);

cauline blades 1-nerved, oblong, obovate, oblanceolate, or spatulate to triangular, lanceolate, or linear (bases usually clasping), margins usually serrate to dentate, sometimes entire, crenate, or pinnatifid (especially proximal), faces usually glabrous and gland-dotted, sometimes hirsutulous, hirtellous, puberulous, scabridulous, villous, or stipitate-glandular.

Cauline leaf

blades usually oblong, oblanceolate, or spatulate (broadest at or beyond their midpoints), sometimes ovate, lanceolate, or linear, (5–)10–80(–120+) mm, lengths 2–8+ times widths, bases clasping or cuneate, margins usually serrate to dentate (teeth apiculate to setose), sometimes entire, apices truncate, rounded, or obtuse to acute, faces hirsutulous, puberulous, or villous and little, if at all, gland-dotted, or glabrous (or scabridulous near margins) and sparsely to densely gland-dotted.

Involucres

usually broadly urceolate to globose, sometimes hemispheric, campanulate, or obconic, (6–)8–15(–20) × (6–)10–25+ mm (sometimes subtended by leaflike bracts).

usually globose to hemispheric or broadly urceolate, sometimes campanulate to obconic, 5–25+ mm diam. (excluding phyllary apices).

Receptacles

flat or convex, ± pitted (pits sometimes flanked by membranous or setiform enations), epaleate.

Ray florets

0 or (5–)15–60+;

laminae (4–)10–25+ mm.

0 or 5–60+, pistillate, fertile;

corollas yellow to orange.

Disc florets

(20–)100–200(–300+), bisexual and fertile (all or outer) or functionally staminate (ovaries not producing cypselae) corollas yellow, tubes shorter than gradually to abruptly ampliate throats, lobes 5, erect or spreading, ± deltate (equal);

style-branch appendages linear or lanceolate to ± deltate.

Phyllaries

in 4–8+ series, reflexed to spreading or appressed, filiform or linear to ± lance-attenuate, lanceolate, or lance-oblong, apices usually recurved or straight, sometimes (the outer) looped to hooked or patent, terete or filiform to subulate, or acute, usually all glabrous and moderately to strongly resinous, sometimes all or outer villosulous to hirsutulous and little, if at all, resinous, seldom, if ever, stipitate-glandular.

(persistent) 25–100+ in (3–)4–9+ series, 1-nerved or obscurely so (± flat, proximally and/or medially thickened), mostly filiform, linear, or lanceolate, usually unequal, sometimes subequal, bases usually ± chartaceous (apices ± herbaceous, looped, hooked, patent, recurved, straight, or incurved), abaxial faces usually glabrous and ± resinous.

Heads

usually in open to crowded, corymbiform to paniculiform arrays, seldom borne singly.

radiate or discoid, in corymbiform to paniculiform arrays or borne singly.

Cypselae

whitish or stramineous to brownish or grayish, (2–)4–6(–7) mm, apices usually ± knobby, sometimes coronate, rarely smooth, faces usually smooth, striate, or furrowed, rarely rugose;

pappi of 2–3(–6) usually contorted or curled, sometimes straight, usually smooth, rarely barbellulate, subulate scales or setiform awns (1–)4–5(–7) mm, usually shorter than, rarely nearly equaling disc corollas.

(whitish or stramineous to gray, brown, or reddish) ellipsoid to obovoid, ± compressed, sometimes ± 3–4-angled (apices smooth, coroniform, or knobby), faces smooth, striate, ribbed, furrowed, or rugose, glabrous;

pappi falling, of (1–)2–8[–15], straight or contorted to curled, smooth or barbellulate to barbellate, sometimes distally clavate, subulate scales, setiform awns, or bristles in 1 series (in G. ciliata, persistent or tardily falling, of 25–40 barbellate bristles subtending 8–15+ barbellate, setiform awns or subulate scales).

x

= 6.

2n

= 12, 24.

Grindelia hirsutula

Grindelia

Phenology Flowering year round, mostly (May–)Jul–Sep(–Nov).
Habitat Disturbed sites, forest openings, hillsides, prairies, roadsides, stream banks, ocean beaches and bluffs, tidal marshes, alkaline, alluvial, clay, or sand soils
Elevation 0–2800 m (0–9200 ft)
Distribution
from FNA
AK; AZ; CA; CO; ID; IL; MI; MN; MO; MT; ND; NE; NM; NV; NY; OR; PA; SD; UT; WA; WY; AB; BC; MB; NT; ON; QC; SK [Introduced in Mexico (Yucatan)]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from USDA
w North America; Mexico; South America; Mostly c North America [Introduced in e North America and the Old World]
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Occurrence of Grindelia hirsutula in Alaska was not verified for this treatment. As circumscribed here, Grindelia hirsutula includes 30 or more reputedly distinct, local, regional, or ecotypic facies that have been named at species or infraspecific rank. Locally, such facies are easily recognized; in a broad view, they intergrade with other facies and are parts of a heterogeneous continuum. Taxonomies that have attempted to recognize the facies as distinct “taxa” have led to almost as many specimens determined as “intermediate” as are assigned to the named “taxa.”

Following, alphabetically by epithet, we have summarized names, diagnostic traits (mostly as given in regional and/or state floras), and distributions for “taxa” treated as distinct in some taxonomies and included within Grindelia hirsutula here:

acutifolia: Grindelia acutifolia; cauline leaf blades firmly membranous, lengths 2.5–5 times widths, phyllary apices looped to hooked, pappi of 2–3, subulate scales; southeastern Colorado, northeastern New Mexico Hybrids between G. acutifolia and G. squarrosa (as G. nuda) have been recorded from the Colorado side of Raton Pass.

altissima: Grindelia nana var. altissima; distal cauline leaves smaller and more scattered than proximal, blades about as wide at bases as at mid points, heads relatively few, heights of involucres less than diams.; mostly inner coastal ranges, northern California, southern Oregon. M. A. Lane (1993b) considered altissima to apply to hybrids between davyi and nana.

angusta: Grindelia inornata var. angusta; cauline leaf blades oblong to oblong-lanceolate, lengths 3+ times widths, faces inconspicuously gland-dotted, ray florets 0, cypselae stramineous to pale brown; central Colorado.

angustifolia: Grindelia stricta var. angustifolia; see humilis.

blakei: Grindelia stricta subsp. blakei; see humilis.

bracteosa: Grindelia bracteosa; G. camporum var. bracteosa; G. robusta var. bracteosa; stems usually whitish and resinous, lengths of cauline leaf blades 3–5 times widths, phyllary apices usually looped, ray florets 0 or 2–27; southern California. M. A. Lane (1993b) suggested that bracteosa may have derived from hybridization between hirsutula and G. squarrosa (var. serrulata). See also, robusta.

camporum: Grindelia camporum; stems usually whitish and resinous, cauline leaf blades ovate to lanceolate, involucres seldom subtended by bracts, phyllary apices recurved to straight, ray florets 32–39; mostly interior north, central California.

columbiana: Grindelia nana [unranked] columbiana; G. columbiana; ray florets 0, otherwise much like nana; Idaho, Oregon, Washington (mostly Columbia River drainage).

davyi: Grindelia camporum var. davyi; G. hirsutula var. davyi; G. robusta var. davyi; phyllary apices recurved to straight, acuminate, pappi usually ± equaling disc corollas; interior northern California. M. A. Lane (1993b) suggested that davyi may have derived from hybridization between camporum and hirsutula.

fastigiata: Grindelia fastigiata; cauline leaf blades conspicuously gland-dotted, phyllary apices thick, coriaceous, ray florets 0, cypselae brown; western Colorado and eastern Utah. Hybrids between fastigiata and G. squarrosa have been recorded from Utah.

hallii: Grindelia hallii; G. hirsutula var. hallii; involucres 8–12 mm diam., phyllary apices slightly recurved and attenuate to nearly straight and deltate, pappi shorter than disc corollas; interior southern California.

hirsutula: Grindelia hirsutula; stems usually green to reddish, ± hirsutulous to arachnose (at least distally), cauline leaf blades usually widest proximal to their midpoints, involucres 12–23 mm diam., often subtended by leaflike bracts, phyllary apices mostly recurved to straight, slightly to moderately resinous, ray florets usually 20–60, laminae 14–20 mm, cypselae usually reddish; mostly coastal ranges of California.

humilis: Grindelia humilis Hooker & Arnott; about the nomenclatural type of G. humilis, M. A. Lane (1992b) stated “...clearly conspecific with G. hirsutula” and she used the name G. stricta var. angustifolia for plants others had treated as G. humilis; as used by others, humilis has been applied to subshrubs 100–150 cm with red-brown stems and phyllary apices recurved to nearly straight from tidal lands around San Francisco and Tomales bays in northern California; similar plants but for apices of phyllaries often looped to hooked from around Humboldt Bay in northern California have been called blakei.

inornata: Grindelia inornata; cauline leaf blades oblanceolate or ovate to oblong, lengths 1.5–3 times widths, faces inconspicuously gland-dotted, ray florets 0, cypselae stramineous to pale brown; central Colorado. Hybrids between inornata and G. subalpina have been recorded from Colorado.

integerrima: Grindelia nana var. integerrima; see integrifolia.

integrifolia: Grindelia nana var. integrifolia Nuttall (not G. integrifolia de Candolle); G. squarrosa var. integrifolia; cauline leaf blades oblanceolate, margins subentire, phyllary apices (at least the outer) looped to hooked, pappi of curled, smooth to barbellulate, subulate scales scarcely longer than cypselae; Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington.

latifolia: Grindelia latifolia; stems herbaceous, decumbent to prostrate, leaf blade apices rounded, obtuse, or acute; coastal central and southern California (including Channel Islands).

macrophylla: Grindelia macrophylla; G. integrifolia var. macrophylla; G. stricta var. macrophylla; see stricta.

maritima: G. hirsutula var. maritima; G. maritima (Greene) Steyermark; G. rubricaulis var. maritima; stems ascending, 30–80 cm, openly branched, involucres 12–25 mm diam., phyllary apices slightly recurved to nearly straight, cypselae golden or grayish, lengths of pappi ± 1/2 disc corollas; coastal central California. M. A. Lane (1993b) suggested that maritima may have derived from hybridization between hirsutula and platyphylla.

nana: Grindelia nana; stems yellowish to reddish, not resinous, cauline leaf blades usually oblanceolate, lengths usually 5–8 times widths, margins entire or (distally) serrate, involucres mostly 7–10 × 9–15 mm, phyllary apices looped or nearly straight; interior British Columbia, northern California, Idaho, western Montana, northern Nevada, Oregon, Washington.

paludosa: Grindelia paludosa; the nomenclatural type may be a hybrid; stems herbaceous, 50–150 cm, cauline leaf blades coriaceous, little, or not at all, gland-dotted, outer phyllary apices looped, strongly resinous; around Suisun Bay, northern California.

parviflora: Grindelia camporum var. parviflora; see procera.

perennis: Grindelia perennis; perennials, cauline leaf blades oblong to oblanceolate, lengths 6–8 times widths, margins entire or remotely serrulate, phyllary apices strongly resinous, pappi of 2–4 subulate scales; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Ontario, Saskatchewan; Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.

platyphylla: Grindelia latifolia subsp. platyphylla; G. robusta var. platyphylla; G. stricta var. platyphylla; stems herbaceous (caudices woody), greenish, decumbent to prostrate, cauline leaf blades widest proximal to mid points, apices rounded to truncate; dunes and coastal bluffs, central and southern California.

procera: Grindelia procera; stems erect, 80–180 cm, strictly branching distally, phyllary apices nearly patent to straight, glabrous, slightly resinous, ray florets 21–45, laminae 8–10 mm; mostly interior central California.

quasiperennis: Grindelia squarrosa var. quasiperennis; see perennis.

revoluta: Grindelia revoluta; perennials (possibly flowering first year), stems glabrous, cauline leaf blades subcoriaceous, thickened, lengths 2.5–5 times widths, margins entire or remotely dentate to denticulate with short, broad teeth, phyllary apices usually looped, strongly resinous, ray florets 21–37, pappi of 2–4 subulate scales; central and south central Colorado.

rigida: Grindelia robusta var. rigida; see camporum.

robusta: Grindelia robusta; fide M. A. Lane (1992b), the nomenclatural type of G. robusta is a hybrid that came from a cross between plants assignable to G. hirsutula in the sense of Lane and plants assignable to G. stricta in the sense of Lane. Within Lane’s interpretation and taxonomic constraints, G. robusta cannot be placed in synonymy of the species name of either “parent.” We believe instead that the type of robusta belongs to the “taxon” that has been called bracteosa.

rubricaulis: Grindelia rubricaulis; G. hirsutula subsp. rubricaulis; the type of rubricaulis is very much like the type of hirsutula [see above].

stricta: Grindelia stricta; stems usually green to reddish, prostrate to erect, usually ± hirsutulous to arachnose (at least distally), sometimes glabrous, cauline leaf blades usually widest distal to their midpoints, involucres mostly 10–50 mm diam., sometimes subtended by bracteoles, phyllary apices usually slightly recurved to straight, slightly to moderately resinous, ray florets 30–60, laminae 13–25 mm, scales of pappi 0.3+ mm wide at bases; mostly coastal beaches and marshes; British Columbia, Alaska, California, Oregon, Washington.

venulosa: Grindelia stricta subsp. venulosa; stems procumbent to decumbent, whitish to yellowish, cauline leaf blades fleshy, apices rounded, phyllary apices looped; coastal bluffs and marshes; California, Oregon.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Species ca. 30 (18 in the flora).

The last attempt to account for the whole of Grindelia was by J. A. Steyermark (1934b). After comparing Steyermark’s treatment with specimens, one gets the impression that Steyermark had a keen eye for subtleties and trends in variation and that he sometimes assigned taxonomic ranks (species, variety, and forma) to trends rather than to what most botanists would consider to be taxa. Subsequently, writers of local and regional floras have felt obliged to recognize Steyermark’s “taxa.” Here, some of Steyermark’s “taxa” have been included within more broadly drawn circumscriptions; attention is called to them in discussions.

Within and among populations of grindelias, some morphologic traits appear to vary more from plant to plant than in most genera of composites. M. P. Dunford (1964) reported grindelias he had tested to be “essentially self-incompatible” and (1986) stated, “...Grindelia species are outcrossing and self-incompatible....” Some patterns of variation within Grindelia are similar to those found in genera characterized by apomictic seed production (e.g., local morphologic variants such as discoid plants in otherwise radiate taxa, hairy plants in otherwise glabrous taxa, narrow-leaved plants in otherwise broad-leaved taxa, etc.). See comments in discussion under 13. G. hirsutula.

References here to hybrids are based on observations by M. A. Wetter and/or on statements by M. P. Dunford (1964, 1986) and J. A. Steyermark (1934b).

Morphologic details and descriptive conventions for grindelias as treated here are:

Margins of most cauline leaves of most grindelias are usually dentate to serrate and have sharp, apiculate to setose teeth. Some species characteristically have cauline leaves with ± crenate margins and rounded, obtuse, or truncate teeth tipped by resin globules. Sporadically, individual plants may have some teeth resin-tipped and some teeth apiculate; such specimens may be hybrids or may indicate that the developmental paths to the two forms may be easily redirected. Plants with margins of some or all leaves entire may be encountered in almost all species of Grindelia and may predominate in some plants, populations, or species.

Leaf faces are usually gland-dotted with glands embedded in (or sessile in pits in) both the abaxial and adaxial epidermes. In some plants, populations, or species, the glands may be characteristically stipitate; developmental control for the different forms is apparently easily redirected (see comments under 11. Grindelia howellii).

Phyllaries are usually ± chartaceous proximally and herbaceous distally. Orientations of whole phyllaries and of their herbaceous apices are addressed in keys and descriptions. Individually, orientations of phyllaries vary from reflexed through spreading to appressed (often, within an involucre, outer phyllaries are ± reflexed and inner phyllaries are ± appressed). The herbaceous apices of phyllaries may be terete to flat and subulate to acuminate or acute, and vary from looped (coiled through ca. 270–400+ degrees), hooked (bent ± like a crozier through ± 180+ degrees), patent (bent at ± 90 degrees), or ± recurved or arcuate (sometimes incurved) to straight. An outer phyllary may be reflexed and have a looped, hooked, patent, recurved, or straight tip; an inner phyllary may be appressed and have a looped to hooked or recurved to straight tip; etc. The resin glands on the apices are usually circular, sometimes linear.

Cypselae of grindelias differ markedly from ovaries as seen at flowering. Cypselae are usually whitish or stramineous, sometimes brownish, grayish, reddish, or yellowish. They are usually ± compressed and ± ellipsoid to obovoid, sometimes 3–4-angled and ± reniform or rounded-prismatic. They are usually ± continuously variable in color, shape, size, and/or ornamentation within heads; sometimes they are ± dimorphic within heads, the outer differing from the inner in color, shape, size, and/or ornamentation. Cypselae that are 3- or 4-angled may have the angles ± thickened or ribbed. Apices of cypselae may be knobby (1–4 bumps or toothlike projections), coronate (a ± pronounced ridge), or smooth (rounded to ± truncate, not ornamented). Faces of cypselae may be smooth, striate (finely longitudinally nerved), ribbed, furrowed, or ± rugose (bumpy to tuberculate or with longitudinal and transverse fissures, grooves, or wrinkles).

Pappus elements are usually subulate scales (greatest width about 3 times thickness), setiform awns (greatest width about 2 times thickness), or bristles (width about equal to thickness) and are usually falling (± persistent subulate scales or setiform awns subtended by bristles in Grindelia ciliata). They may be ± straight or contorted to curled and may be smooth or barbellulate to barbellate; they were described as “entire” or “serrulate” to “setulose” by J. A. Steyermark (1934b) and others.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Pappi (persistent or tardily falling) of 25–40, barbellate bristles subtending 8–15+ barbellate, setiform awns or subulate scales
G. ciliata
1. Pappi (readily falling) of (1–)2–3(–8+), smooth or barbellulate to barbellate bristles, setiform awns, or subulate scales
→ 2
2. Mostly annuals and biennials, some perennials; margins of cauline leaves ± crenate to serrate (usually from bases to apices, teeth usually rounded, obtuse, or blunt, usually resin-tipped; rarely some or all leaves of a plant entire)
→ 3
2. Mostly perennials or subshrubs, some biennials or annuals; margins of cauline leaves usually serrate to dentate or denticulate (from bases to apices or mostly toward apices, teeth sharp, apiculate to setose), sometimes entire
→ 9
3. Stems glabrous; pappi usually shorter than, sometimes nearly equaling, disc corollas
→ 4
3. Stems usually villous or villosulous to hirtellous (at least distally), sometimes stipitate-glandular as well, sometimes glabrate; pappi usually equaling or surpassing disc corollas
→ 6
4. Blades of cauline leaves oblanceolate or lanceolate to linear (the distal ± appressed; marginal teeth mostly 9–15 per cm), apices acute to acuminate; phyllary apices incurved to straight
G. grandiflora
4. Blades of cauline leaves mostly ovate, obovate, or oblong to spatulate, sometimes oblanceolate, lanceolate, or linear (the distal not ± appressed; marginal teeth mostly 3–9 per cm), apices obtuse to acute; phyllary apices looped to hooked or recurved to nearly straight
→ 5
5. Blades of cauline leaves (5–)10–15(–30) mm; phyllary apices recurved to nearly straight
G. oxylepis
5. Blades of cauline leaves (10–)15–70 mm; phyllary apices usually looped to hooked, sometimes recurved to nearly straight
G. squarrosa
6. Perennials; cauline leaves (7–)15–30(–55) mm (marginal teeth usually 3–5 per cm); faces of cypselae smooth or striate (angles ± ribbed)
G. havardii
6. Annuals; cauline leaves 10–60(–90) mm (marginal teeth usually 5–14 per cm); faces of cypselae usually ± rugose, sometimes smooth or striate
→ 7
7. Faces of leaf blades usually hirtellous and glandular (glands usually stipitate, sometimes sessile, seldom in pits); faces of cypselae rugose (and transversely fissured)
G. pusilla
7. Faces of leaf blades usually hirtellous to scabridulous and glandular (glands usually in pits, sometimes sessile, seldom stipitate), sometimes glabrate; faces of cypselae smooth, striate, or rugose (little, or not all, transversely fissured)
→ 8
8. Plants 30–130 cm; blades of cauline leaves ovate or ± triangular to oblong or obovate, 15–60(–90) mm (marginal teeth 8–14 per cm)
G. adenodonta
8. Plants 15–40 cm; blades of cauline leaves ± oblong or spatulate,10–30(–45+) mm (marginal teeth 6–8 per cm)
G. microcephala
9. Stems decumbent to ascending (from rhizomes); heads borne singly; involucres hemispheric to campanulate; rays 0
G. oölepis
9. Stems usually erect, sometimes prostrate to decumbent or ascending (not from rhizomes); heads usually in corymbiform to paniculiform arrays, seldom borne singly; involucres usually broadly urceolate to globose, sometimes hemispheric, campanulate, or obconic; rays 0 or 5–60+
→ 10
10. Stems arachnose, hirsutulous, hirtellous, puberulous, or villous and/or stipitate-glandular
→ 11
10. Stems usually glabrous, rarely sparsely pilose to pilosulous
→ 14
11. Pappi of 2–4 ± straight, usually barbellulate, sometimes smooth, bristles slightly shorter than to ± equaling disc corollas
G. scabra
11. Pappi of 2–4(–6), usually contorted to curled, sometimes nearly straight, smooth or barbellulate, subulate scales or setiform awns usually shorter than, rarely nearly equaling, disc corollas
→ 12
12. Apices of phyllaries mostly looped to hooked (inner sometimes recurved to straight)
G. howellii
12. Apices of phyllaries slightly recurved, straight, or incurved
→ 13
13. Blades of cauline leaves mostly lanceolate or lance-attenuate (broadest proximal to midpoints), bases clasping (± cordate), margins usually entire, rarely serrate to denticulate, apices acute to attenuate; phyllary apices ± stipitate-glandular
G. integrifolia
13. Blades of cauline leaves mostly oblong, oblanceolate, or spatulate (broadest at or beyond their midpoints), bases clasping or cuneate, margins usually serrate to dentate, sometimes entire, apices truncate, rounded, or obtuse to acute; apices of phyllaries seldom, if ever, stipitate-glandular
G. hirsutula
14. Apices of phyllaries (most or at least the outer) looped to hooked or patent (inner may be recurved, straight, or incurved)
→ 15
14. Apices of phyllaries mostly slightly incurved, straight, or slightly recurved.
→ 17
15. Pappi of 4–8 straight, barbellate to barbellulate bristles or setiform awns
G. subalpina
15. Pappi of 2–4(–6) usually contorted to curled, sometimes straight, smooth or barbellulate, subulate scales or setiform awns
→ 16
16. Apices of phyllaries usually moderately to strongly resinous; pappi of 2–3(–6), usually contorted to curled, sometimes straight, setiform awns or subulate scales
G. hirsutula
16. Apices of phyllaries slightly to moderately resinous; pappi of 2–4 straight or slightly contorted, setiform awns or subulate scales
G. decumbens
17. Pappi of 2 straight, smooth (apices often dilated), setiform awns 4–8 mm, usually equaling to slightly surpassing disc corollas
G. lanceolata
17. Pappi of 2–3(–6) straight or contorted to curled, smooth or barbellulate to barbellate (apices not dilated), setiform awns or subulate scales 2–5(–7) mm, usually shorter than, sometimes nearly equaling, disc corollas
→ 18
18. Involucres usually broadly urceolate to globose; rays 0 or (5–)15–60+, laminae (4–)10–25+ mm
G. hirsutula
18. Involucres usually campanulate to obconic, sometimes hemispheric; rays 0 or 5–26, laminae 3–10 mm
→ 19
19. Cauline leaves: faces of blades glabrous (or scabridulous near margins) and sparsely, or not at all, gland-dotted; rays 0 or 8–26, laminae (5–)7–10 mm
G. arizonica
19. Cauline leaves: faces of blades glabrous and densely gland-dotted; rays 5–13,laminae 3–5(–7) mm
G. fraxinipratensis
Source FNA vol. 20, p. 432. FNA vol. 20, p. 424. Authors: John L. Strother, Mark A. Wetter.
Parent taxa Asteraceae > tribe Astereae > Grindelia Asteraceae > tribe Astereae
Sibling taxa
G. adenodonta, G. arizonica, G. ciliata, G. decumbens, G. fraxinipratensis, G. grandiflora, G. havardii, G. howellii, G. integrifolia, G. lanceolata, G. microcephala, G. oölepis, G. oxylepis, G. pusilla, G. scabra, G. squarrosa, G. subalpina
Subordinate taxa
G. adenodonta, G. arizonica, G. ciliata, G. decumbens, G. fraxinipratensis, G. grandiflora, G. havardii, G. hirsutula, G. howellii, G. integrifolia, G. lanceolata, G. microcephala, G. oxylepis, G. oölepis, G. pusilla, G. scabra, G. squarrosa, G. subalpina
Synonyms G. acutifolia, G. camporum, G. camporum var. bracteosa, G. camporum var. davyi, G. camporum var. parviflora, G. columbiana, G. fastigiata, G. hallii, G. hirsutula var. davyi, G. hirsutula var. hallii, G. hirsutula var. maritima, G. hirsutula subsp. rubricaulis, G. humilis, G. inornata, G. inornata var. angusta, G. integrifolia var. macrophylla, G. latifolia, G. latifolia subsp. platyphylla, G. macrophylla, G. maritima, G. nana, G. nana var. altissima, G. nana subsp. columbiana, G. nana var. integerrima, G. nana var. integrifolia, G. paludosa, G. perennis, G. procera, G. revoluta, G. robusta, G. robusta var. bracteosa, G. robusta var. davyi, G. robusta var. platyphylla, G. robusta var. rigida, G. rubricaulis, G. rubricaulis var. maritima, G. squarrosa var. integrifolia, G. squarrosa var. quasiperennis, G. stricta, G. stricta var. angustifolia, G. stricta subsp. blakei, G. stricta var. macrophylla, G. stricta var. platyphylla, G. stricta subsp. venulosa
Name authority Hooker & Arnott: Bot. Beechey Voy., 147. (1833) Willdenow: Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Mag. Neuesten Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk. 1: 259. (1807)
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