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Gentiana newberryi

alpine gentian, Newberry's gentian

closed gentian, great lakes or red-stem or purple-stem gentian, red-stem gentian

Habit Herbs perennial, 0.1–1.5(–3.5) dm (below flowers), glabrous. Herbs perennial, 1–8 dm, glabrous.
Stems

1–5, arising laterally below rosettes, from a stout tap root, tufted, decumbent.

1–5, terminal from caudex, erect.

Leaves

basal and cauline;

blades of basal rosette and proximal cauline leaf blades widely spatulate to obovate or oblanceolate, 0.8–5 cm × 2–25 mm, apex obtuse or mucronate, at least these leaves with blades less than 6 times as long as wide, distal cauline leaves few, with blades oblanceolate to lanceolate or linear, 2–5 cm × 2–5 mm, apices acute.

cauline, gradually more widely spaced distally;

blade linear to oblong-lanceolate (proximal) or lanceolate to ovate (distal), 3–9 cm × 8–30 mm, apex acute.

Inflorescences

terminal, flowers usually solitary, occasionally 2 or 3.

dense 1–15-flowered cymes, basally ± enveloped by ascending, conduplicate involucral leaves, rarely with additional flowers at one node.

Flowers

calyx 14–30 mm, lobes linear to narrowly ovate, (4–)6–12 mm, margins not ciliate;

corolla white or blue, campanulate, open, 23–55 mm, lobes spreading, elliptic-obovate, 7–17 mm, free portions of plicae divided into 2 triangular, serrate to lacerate segments;

anthers distinct.

calyx 10–26 mm, lobes oblong, 2–14 mm, margins not ciliate;

corolla grayish violet to violet-blue or occasionally rose-violet or white, tubular, loosely closed or slightly open, 30–45 mm, lobes ascending, ovate-triangular, 4–8 mm, free portions of plicae obliquely triangular, erose, with minute, deflexed second segment;

anthers connate.

Seeds

winged.

winged.

2n

 = 26.

Gentiana newberryi

Gentiana rubricaulis

Phenology Flowering late summer–fall.
Habitat Fens, swamps, wet mead­ows, stream banks, interdunal depressions, calcar­eous soils.
Elevation 0–700 m. (0–2300 ft.)
Distribution
from USDA
w United States
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from FNA
ME; MI; MN; WI; MB; NB; ON
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[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

The two varieties of Gentiana newberryi intergrade extensively. The most distinctive form of var. newberryi, with relatively tall stems and medium to deep blue corollas, occurs in the northern part of the range of the species, from the Klamath and White mountains of California north into Oregon. Plants most clearly referable to var. tiogana prevail in the southern part of the range of the species, from Butte County south to Inyo and Tulare counties, California. In the central part of the range of the species, plant size and corolla color are less consistently correlated, with occasional plants combining low stature with deep blue corollas or tall stems with predominantly white or pale blue corollas. In that part of the range, corolla color may be highly variable within a single population.

The leaves of Gentiana newberryi are thick-textured and distinctively concave, usually spoon-shaped, when fresh. Narrower leaves sometimes occur in var. tiogana, but many plants of that variety have widely spatulate leaves like those of var. newberryi.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

The name Gentiana linearis var. lanceolata A. Gray was applied originally to plants referable to G. linearis, although the name G. rubricaulis was cited in synonymy. The name G. linearis var. latifolia was applied originally only to G. rubricaulis, but both of these names were applied subsequently to both that species and relatively wide-leaved specimens of G. linearis. This confusion has been responsible in some cases for the rejection of specific status for G. rubricaulis, and for erroneous reports of G. rubricaulis in New York and Vermont. Reports from Nebraska were based on an old misidentification of G. puberulenta. Reports from Saskatchewan were also based on misidentified specimens. Reports of G. rubricaulis in Maine and New Brunswick are correct, although these populations are disjunct by about 775 km from the easternmost populations in Ontario.

In marked contrast to all other species of Gentiana in eastern and central North America, including G. linearis, the involucral leaves of this species are strongly ascending and somewhat conduplicate as well as being wider, and envelop the proximal portion of the flower cluster.

In the vicinity of Lake Superior, where the ranges of Gentiana rubricaulis and G. linearis overlap, these species maintain their distinctness, with G. rubricaulis occurring in calcareous soils and G. linearis in granitic and similar strongly acid soils (J. S. Pringle 1968). A few hybrids of G. rubricaulis with G. andrewsii, which is likewise a calciphile, are known. These hybrids have been designated G. × grandilacustris J. S. Pringle.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Corollas medium to deep blue with greenish to dark purple lines abaxially on and below lobes, usually 35–55 mm.
var. newberryi
1. Corollas white to pale blue except for greenish to dark purple lines abaxially on and below lobes, usually 23–42 mm.
var. tiogana
Source FNA vol. 14. FNA vol. 14.
Parent taxa Gentianaceae > Gentiana Gentianaceae > Gentiana
Sibling taxa
G. affinis, G. algida, G. andrewsii, G. austromontana, G. autumnalis, G. calycosa, G. catesbaei, G. clausa, G. decora, G. douglasiana, G. flavida, G. fremontii, G. glauca, G. latidens, G. linearis, G. nivalis, G. parryi, G. pennelliana, G. platypetala, G. plurisetosa, G. prostrata, G. puberulenta, G. rubricaulis, G. saponaria, G. sceptrum, G. setigera, G. villosa
G. affinis, G. algida, G. andrewsii, G. austromontana, G. autumnalis, G. calycosa, G. catesbaei, G. clausa, G. decora, G. douglasiana, G. flavida, G. fremontii, G. glauca, G. latidens, G. linearis, G. newberryi, G. nivalis, G. parryi, G. pennelliana, G. platypetala, G. plurisetosa, G. prostrata, G. puberulenta, G. saponaria, G. sceptrum, G. setigera, G. villosa
Subordinate taxa
G. newberryi var. newberryi, G. newberryi var. tiogana
Synonyms Dasystephana grayi, G. grayi, G. linearis var. latifolia, G. linearis subsp. rubricaulis, G. linearis var. rubricaulis
Name authority A. Gray: Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 11: 84. (1876) Schweinitz in W. H. Keating: Narrat. Exp. St. Peter’s River 2: 384. (1824)
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