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salal, shallal

Habit Shrubs, creeping, not mat-forming, rhizomatous.

erect to partially erect, (greenish), 50–200+ cm, ± glandular-hairy, glabrescent.


blades oval to ovate or orbiculate to reniform, 4–8+ cm, base rounded or cordate, margins serrulate (teeth fimbriate apically), apex mucronate/apiculate or aristate, surfaces glabrous.


axillary, drooping, secund racemes;

peduncle deep pink to red, 7–15+ cm, densely glandular-hairy;

bracts white to light pink, deltate, 4–6 mm, not exceeding sepals, glandular-hairy marginally.


white, 7–10 mm, densely glandular-hairy;

bracteoles 1–5, pinkish white, parallel-veined, oblanceolate, 3–5 mm, densely glandular-hairy.


sepals 5, distinct nearly to base, dark pink to red, narrowly deltate, 3.5–5 mm, glandular-hairy (hairs reddish);

petals 5, connate nearly their entire lengths, white to light pink, 7–8 mm, densely glandular-hairy, corolla narrowly urceolate, lobes 1 mm;

filaments widest proximally, glabrous, papillose;

anthers with 2 apical, bifurcating awns, dehiscent by subterminal pores proximal to awns.


black-purple, 6–8 mm wide.


= 22, 44.

Gaultheria shallon

Phenology Flowering May-early Jul; fruiting late Jul–Sep.
Habitat Woods and transition zones, moist soils, rocky or sandy cliffs, coastal bluffs
Elevation 0-1300 m (0-4300 ft)
from FNA
AK; CA; OR; WA; BC [Introduced in nw Europe]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]

Fruits of Gaultheria shallon are a food source for animals, and the evergreen leaves provide additional food throughout the winter. This species has been used as a vegetative cover in disturbed areas because it spreads aggressively. The fresh and dried or smoked fruits were an important food of native peoples throughout its range. The evergreen leaves are used commercially in floral arrangements.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 8, p. 514.
Parent taxa Ericaceae > subfam. Vaccinioideae > Gaultheria
Sibling taxa
G. hispidula, G. humifusa, G. ovatifolia, G. procumbens, G. pyroloides
Name authority Pursh: Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 283, plate 12. (1813)
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