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white ramping fumitory

fumeterre, fumitory, ramping-fumitory

Habit Plants 1-8 dm. Herbs, annual, caulescent, from taproots.
Stems

erect to reclining, branching.

Leaves

cauline, sometimes also basal, compound;

blade with 3-4 orders of leaflets and lobes, margins entire, surfaces glabrous.

Inflorescences

, excluding peduncle, 2-3.5 cm;

bracteoles equaling or shorter than pedicels.

terminal on main stem and leaf-opposed branches, racemose.

Flowers

pedicel rigidly arcuate-recurved in fruit, ca. 3 mm;

corolla 9-14 mm, spur 2-3 mm;

outer petals white;

inner petals white near base, deep red or dark purple apically.

bilaterally symmetric about 1 plane;

sepals peltate with attachment near base, ovate, base rounded, margins ± lacerate, apex acute to acuminate;

outer petals inconspicuously crested, one basally spurred;

stamens with filaments of each bundle completely connate, adhering basally to petals;

ovary ovoid;

style promptly deciduous after anthesis, elongate;

stigma ± 2-lobed.

Capsules

globose, slightly compressed, 2-2.5 mm diam., smooth or nearly so.

indehiscent.

Seed

1, elaiosome absent.

2n

= 64.

Fumaria capreolata

Fumaria

Phenology Flowering spring.
Habitat Waste places, ditches, cultivated fields
Elevation 0-50 m (0-200 ft)
Distribution
from FNA
FL; sw Europe; n Africa [Introduced in North America]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
from USDA
Eurasia; Africa; and Atlantic islands; with greatest diversity in w Mediterranean region
[BONAP county map]
Discussion

Species ca. 50 (3 in the flora).

Fumaria parviflora Lamarck was reported as adventive from Europe in central Texas by D. S. Correll and M. C. Johnston (1970) and in central and southern coastal California by J. C. Hickman (1993). In the former treatment F. parviflora is said to differ from F. officinalis by having leaf segments with channeled lobes, and capsules obtuse to apiculate or beaked, while in the latter treatment it is reported to differ from that species by having shorter (3-4 mm), cream-colored petals, the inner ones tipped purple, and ± crested capsules. Evidently, the species is found in North America only as a waif and is not naturalized here. Fumaria martinii Clavaud, a synonym of F. reuteri Boissier according to M. Lidén (1986), was reported from southwestern British Columbia by B. Boivin (1966), but I have not seen specimens. Fumaria bastardii Boreau also has been reported from British Columbia, as an infrequent garden escape on roadsides, in waste places, and at forest edges in the southern part of the province (G. W. Douglas et al. 1989). It differs from F. officinalis in that the corolla is dark pink and 10-12 mm long.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Key
1. Pedicels rigidly arcuate-recurved in fruit; capsules smooth or nearly so; corolla 9–14 mm.
F. capreolata
1. Pedicels straight and spreading to ascending in fruit; capsules slightly wrinkled, warty, pebbled, or shallowly pitted; corolla 5–9.5 mm.
→ 2
2. Corolla 6–9.5 mm, spur ca. 2.5 mm.
F. officinalis
2. Corolla 5–6 mm, spur 1–1.5 mm.
F. vaillantii
Source FNA vol. 3. FNA vol. 3.
Parent taxa Fumariaceae > Fumaria Fumariaceae
Sibling taxa
F. officinalis, F. vaillantii
Subordinate taxa
F. capreolata, F. officinalis, F. vaillantii
Name authority Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 701. (1753) Linnaeus: Sp. Pl. 2: 699. 175: Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 314. (1754)
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