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earring flower, hardy fuchsia, hummingbird fuchsia, Magellan fuchsia

Habit Shrubs glabrous or sparsely strigillose. Herbs, perennial, or shrubs, [epiphytes, lianas, or trees].
Stems

arcuate, 1–3(–5) m.

Leaves

in whorls of 3 or 4 per node, sometimes opposite;

petiole 0.5–1(–2) cm;

blade elliptic-ovate or ovate to lanceolate, 1.5–6(–7) × 1–2(–4) cm.

opposite or whorled, [alternate];

stipules present.

Flowers

1 or 2 per node of distal leaves, pendent;

floral tube crimson, 7–15 mm;

sepals crimson, (15–)17–25(–30) mm;

petals convolute after anthesis, (8–)11–20 mm;

stamens exserted;

filaments 18–35 mm;

stigma clavate.

primarily protogynous, actinomorphic and 4-merous, or zygomorphic and 2-merous;

stamens 2 times as many, or as many, as sepals;

pollen shed in monads.

Fruits

indehiscent, either a fleshy berry or a dry capsule, covered with stiff, hooked hairs.

Seeds

1–500, without hairs or wings.

Berry

oblong, 10–22 mm;

pedicel (10–)20–55 mm.

2n

= 44.

Fuchsia magellanica

Onagraceae tribe Circaeeae

Phenology Flowering May–Nov.
Habitat Sea bluffs, ditches, creek banks, damp thickets in partial shade or full sun.
Elevation 10–200 m. (0–700 ft.)
Distribution
from FNA
CA; OR; South America [Introduced in North America; introduced also in w Europe (Ireland), Asia (India), e Africa, Pacific Islands (Hawaiian Islands, New Zealand), Australia]
[WildflowerSearch map]
[BONAP county map]
North America; Mexico; Central America; South America; West Indies (Hispaniola); Eurasia; n Africa; Pacific Islands (New Zealand, Society Islands)
Discussion

Fuchsia magellanica is known in the flora area from Alameda, Contra Costa, Humboldt, Mendocino, Monterey, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, and Sonoma counties in California, and Coos, Curry, Lane, and Lincoln counties in Oregon; it is native to the southern Andes in South America (Argentina, Chile).

Fuchsia magellanica is a member of sect. Quelusia (Vandelli) de Candolle, characterized by its shrubby-lianoid habit, opposite or whorled leaves, and distinctive floral pattern associated with hummingbird pollination, including violet, convolute petals, strongly exserted stamens, and partially connate sepals that are longer than the floral tubes. In the flora area, it is visited by Anna’s Hummingbird (Calypte anna).

In Oregon, besides the normal red and purple flowered plants, there are also naturalized populations of a much paler flowered form of Fuchsia magellanica in which the floral tubes and sepals are pale white or tinged with pink, and the petals are only slightly purple. Similar populations can be found in the wild in Patagonia, and similar color variants are naturalized in New Zealand. One particular naturalized population near Brookings, Curry County, Oregon, is different from the other naturalized F. magellanica populations, and it appears to have originated from escaped cultivars involving a cross between F. magellanica and F. coccinea Aiton, a Brazilian species also in sect. Quelusia. Another naturalized population at the northern end of Bodega Bay, Sonoma County, California, is adjacent to banks full of F. magellanica, but it is different and appears to be intermediate between F. regia Vellozo and F. coccinea. In California, additional species of Fuchsia have been reported by collections or observations. Fuchsia hybrida hort. ex Siebold & Voss, which can distinguished from F. magellanica by the longer floral tube, 10–20 mm, and sepals 25–30 mm, is a variable garden hybrid involving F. magellanica or F. regia as one of the parents. Most of the observations or collection occurrence outside of cultivation of F. hybrida usually are near buildings or gardens or on a university campus. Fuchsia boliviana Carrière, which can be separated from other others by its floral tube (25–)30–60(–70) mm, scarlet petals, and flowers in pendent racemes or few-branched panicles, was reported as naturalized based on an erroneous observation.

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Genera 2, species 117 (2 genera, 4 species, including 1 hybrid, in the flora).

All previous classification systems have placed Circaea and Fuchsia into different tribes, based on their morphological and geographical differences. Molecular analyses place these genera into a single clade (C. J. Bult and E. A. Zimmer 1993; E. Conti et al. 1993; R. A. Levin et al. 2003, 2004; V. S. Ford and L. D. Gottlieb 2007) that is as or more strongly supported than are other clades. The two genera share the feature of indehiscent fruits, expressed in Fuchsia as fleshy berries and in Circaea as dry fruits covered with hooklike hairs; nonhomologous indehiscent fruits also occur in Onagreae. The only occurrences of protogyny in the family occur in these two genera (not in all species of either, P. H. Raven 1979).

(Discussion copyrighted by Flora of North America; reprinted with permission.)

Source FNA vol. 10. FNA vol. 10.
Parent taxa Onagraceae > subfam. Onagroideae > tribe Circaeeae > Fuchsia Onagraceae > subfam. Onagroideae
Subordinate taxa
Synonyms Fuchsieae de
Name authority Lamarck in J. Lamarck et al.: Encycl. 2: 565. (1788) Dumortier: FFl. Belg., 88. (1827)
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